Development of a Noninvasive Vitamin D Screening Tool

Authors


  • Authors’ Note: Judith M. Lukaszuk, PhD, RD, LDN, is an Associate Professor and Didactic Program Director at Northern Illinois University. Aimee D. Prawitz, PhD, is a Professor at School of Family, Consumer, and Nutrition Sciences and Assistant to the Dean for Research, College of Health and Human Sciences at Northern Illinois University. Kirsten N. Johnson, MS, is a Graduate Student in the School of Family, Consumer, and Nutrition Sciences at Northern Illinois University. Josephine Umoren, PhD, is an Associate Professor and Coordinator, Nutrition Dietetics and Hospitality Administration, School of Family, Consumer & Nutrition Sciences at Northern Illinois University. Terrence J. Bugno, MD, FACR, is a Radiation Oncologist in Sage Cancer Center-Centegra Health System. Please address correspondence to Judith M. Lukaszuk, School of Family, Consumer, and Nutrition Sciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115; e-mail: jmlukaszuk@niu.edu. This study was supported by a research grant from the Medical Nutrition Practice Group, a practice group of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

Abstract

The purpose was to develop a vitamin D screening tool for use in community health/wellness settings. Fifty-four healthy Caucasian women of normal weight (body mass index = 18–24.9) and obese weight (body mass index ≥30) had anthropometrics measured, and completed three-day food records, vitamin D screening tools, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D tests. Findings provided evidence of usefulness of three specific screening tool items (sunscreen use, obesity, dairy consumption) and indicated need for more precision about sunscreen use. Odds for vitamin D inadequacy were 5 times lower with sunscreen use, 6 times higher with low dairy consumption, and 10 times higher with self-reported obesity, X2 (5, n = 54) = 43.24, P <.01. The study provided initial verification of self-report items useful in assessing vitamin D inadequacy. Following refinement and testing with larger, less homogeneous samples, the instrument can serve as a useful, cost-effective vitamin D screening tool in community health/wellness settings.

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