During the past 2 decades, the considerable improvement of magnetic resonance (MR) technology and the development of new MR strategies capable of providing an in vivo overall assessment of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology have allowed us to obtain important novel pieces of information on disease evolution in the brain. However, despite this, the correlation between brain MR imaging metrics and clinical disability are still suboptimal. A reason for this discrepancy might be the involvement of clinically eloquent structures, such as the spinal cord, which owing to technical challenges have not been extensively studied using MR imaging until very recently. An objective and accurate estimate of the presence and extent of spinal cord damage might indeed contribute to increasing the strength of the correlations between clinical and MRI metrics. This review summarizes the main results obtained from the application of conventional and modern MR-based techniques for the evaluation of spinal cord damage in MS.