Locus of Control Specific to Pregnancy

Authors

  • MARY LEE O'CONNELL RN, MSN, ACCE

    Corresponding author
    1. Mary Lee O'Connell is a part-time clinical instructor at Howard Community College in Columbia, Maryland, and is a certified childbirth educator with the American Society for Psychoprophylaxis in Obstetrics. Ms. O'Connell is a member of NAACOG, ASPO, and Sigma Theta Tau.
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  • The author expresses appreciation to Bette Winyall, RN, MS, for reviewing and revising the tool.

Address for correspondence: Mary Lee O'Connell, RN, 4524 Cheltenham Drive, Bethesda, MD 20814.

Abstract

The Pregnancy Attitude Index (PAI), expectancy control scales specific to childbirth, was developed based on Levenson's generalized expectancy control scales. Forty-four primiparae, between 25 and 35 weeks gestation, volunteered to complete both tools before beginning prepared childbirth classes. The study demonstrated that a significant relationship existed between the PA1 and Levenson's Internal, Powerful Others, and Chance control scales.

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