Within the past 10 years, group B streptococcal disease has emerged as a major causative agent in neonatal morbidity and mortality. A brief history of this pathogen and its epidemiologic factors regarding maternal colonization and carriage is presented. Group B streptococcal disease in the neonate and concurrent treatment and prevention modalities also are presented. A case study is included. Suggestions for nursing assessment, intervention, and future considerations are offered.