Nurse researchers have categorized labor support in a variety of ways. Bianchi and Adams (2004), Gagnon and Waghorn (1996), McNiven, Hodnett, and O’Brien-Pallas (1992), and Gale, Fothergill-Bourbonnais, and Chamberlain (2001) grouped supportive care into four areas: physical comfort, emotional support, instructional/informational, and advocacy. Miltner (2002) identified the first three categories of nursing support as including encouragement, positioning, application of heat and cold, massage, instructions for relaxation and breathing, information regarding labor progress, and negotiating with the health care team. Hodnett (1996) identified five types: emotional support, comfort measures, informational/advice, advocacy, and supporting the husband/partner. Sauls (2006) identified professional labor support as having six dimensions: tangible support; advocacy; emotional support—reassurance; emotional support—creating control, security, and comfort; emotional support—nursing caring behaviors; and informational support. Hottenstein (2005), based on Watson’s Theory of Human Caring, named care modalities as auditory, visual, olfactory, tactile, kinesthetic, and caring consciousness. For this review, the four categories on which several research teams agreed were used: physical, emotional, instructional/informational, and advocacy. Supportive care to the laboring woman’s partner is also described because partners may need assistance in order to support the laboring woman (Wood & Carr, 2003).