The authors and planners for this activity report no conflict of interest or relevant financial relationships. The article includes no discussion of off-label drug or devise use. No commercial support was received for this educational activity.
The Impact of Environmental and Occupational Exposures on Reproductive Health
Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2010
© 2010 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing
Volume 39, Issue 1, pages 84–102, January/February 2010
How to Cite
Chalupka, S. and Chalupka, A. N. (2010), The Impact of Environmental and Occupational Exposures on Reproductive Health. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 39: 84–102. doi: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2009.01091.x
- Issue online: 7 JAN 2010
- Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2010
- Accepted August 2009
- environment occupational pregnancy preconception phthalates fertility reproductive toxicant endocrine disruption sperm quality pollutants
Environmental exposures during critical periods of susceptibility in utero may result in lifelong or intergenerational adverse health effects. Most chemicals in commercial use in the United States have not been tested for possible developmental toxicity to fetuses, infants, and children. Environmental and occupational exposures can result in adverse effects on female and male reproduction. Nurses can identify at-risk patients, provide education about the impact of chemical toxicants, and empower women to take precautionary action.