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Keywords:

  • environment occupational pregnancy preconception phthalates fertility reproductive toxicant endocrine disruption sperm quality pollutants

ABSTRACT

Environmental exposures during critical periods of susceptibility in utero may result in lifelong or intergenerational adverse health effects. Most chemicals in commercial use in the United States have not been tested for possible developmental toxicity to fetuses, infants, and children. Environmental and occupational exposures can result in adverse effects on female and male reproduction. Nurses can identify at-risk patients, provide education about the impact of chemical toxicants, and empower women to take precautionary action.