The author reports no conflict of interest or relevant financial relationships.
Provider Management and Support for Breastfeeding Pain
Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011
© 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing
Volume 40, Issue 6, pages 753–764, November/December 2011
How to Cite
Strong, G. D. (2011), Provider Management and Support for Breastfeeding Pain. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 40: 753–764. doi: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2011.01303.x
- Issue published online: 18 NOV 2011
- Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: JUL 2011
- breastfeeding pain;
- primary care provider;
- nipple pain;
- plugged milk ducts
To describe breastfeeding pain reported by breastfeeding women during the first-year postpartum and providers’ management of the pain as recorded in medical records.
Mid-South metropolitan obstetric and gynecologic medical practice.
A convenience sample of 117 breastfeeding women.
Data were collected using a retrospective review of medical records of breastfeeding mothers during their infants’ first year of life.
Participants reported a breastfeeding rate of 56.4%, and of those 23% reported breastfeeding pain during the first year. Major reasons for pain were mastitis (67.5%), candida (32.4%), engorgement (18.0%), nipple tenderness (8.1%), and clogged milk ducts (4.5%). Medications were used most frequently to treat mastitis and candida. However, limited documentation of breastfeeding support beyond prescribing medications was found. Nonpharmacological measures were rarely recommended, and few referrals were documented to specialized providers such as lactation consultants or community support groups. Routine infant feeding choices, breastfeeding discussions, and breastfeeding counseling were rarely documented and multiple non-evidence-based strategies were noted.
Inadequate breastfeeding support and management were evident, and non-evidence-based recommendations were routinely practiced. It is recommended that primary care providers adopt evidence-based practices for breastfeeding and breastfeeding pain that support women in successfully reaching their breastfeeding goals.