Breastfeeding rates in many developed countries remain low, and maternal perception of insufficient milk production is a major contributing factor. Mothers with a perception of insufficient milk should be advised that normal breastfeeding frequencies, suckling times, and amounts are very variable. If objective assessment confirms insufficient milk production, mothers should ensure optimal milk removal frequency and thorough breast drainage. In addition, galactogogues can be prescribed. Understanding physiological principles underlying milk production will help clinicians reassure and assist mothers.