SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    CDC. The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation: The Report of the Surgeon General 1990. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1990; DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 908416.
  • 2
    CDC. Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking: 25 Years of Progress. A report of the surgeon general. Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services, 1989. Publication No. (PHS) 898411.
  • 3
    CDC. Smoking-attributed mortality and years of potential life lost—United States, 1990. MMWR. 1993; 42:6459.
  • 4
    Fielding JE. Smoking: health effects and control. N Engl J Med. 1985; 313:4918, 555–61.
  • 5
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Disease Pre- ' vention/Health Promotion. The Facts. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Public Health Service. Palo Alto, CA: Bull Publishing, 1988.
  • 6
    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services: An Assessment of the Effectiveness of 169 Interventions. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1989.
  • 7
    Wynder EL. Tobacco and health: a review of the history and suggestions for public health policy. Public Health Rep. 1988; 103:818.
  • 8
    Flay BR, Ockene JK, Tager IB. Smoking: Epidemiology, cessation, and prevention. Task Force on Research and Education for the Prevention and Control of Respiratory Diseases. Chest. 1992; 102(3 suppl):277S301S.
  • 9
    Cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 1988. MMWR. 1991;40:75765.
  • 1
    Public health focus: Effectiveness of smoking control strategies— United States. MMWR. 1992; 41:64553.
  • 11
    CDC. Cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 1990. MMWR. 1992; 41:35455, 361–2.
  • 12
    Pierce JP, Fiore MC, Novotny TE, Hatziandreu EJ, Davis RM. Trends in cigarette smoking in the United States. Projections to the year 2000. JAMA. 1989; 261:615.
  • 13
    Kottke TE, Battista RN, DeFriese GH, Brekke ML. Attributes of successful smoking cessation interventions in medical practice. A meta-analysis of 39 controlled trials. JAMA. 1988; 259:28839.
  • 14
    Manley M, Epps RP, Husten C, Glynn T, Shopland D. Clinical interventions in tobacco control. A National Cancer Institute training program for physicians. JAMA. 1991; 266:31723.
  • 15
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Clinical Opportunities for Smoking Interventions. A Guide for the Busy Physician. Public Health Service, 1986; NIH Publication No. 562178.
  • 16
    Ockene JK, Kristeller J, Goldberg R, et al. Increasing the efficacy of physician-delivered smoking interventions: a randomized clinical trial. J Gen Intern Med. 1991; 6:18.
  • 17
    Ockene JK. Physician-delivered interventions for smoking cessation: strategies for increasing effectiveness. Prev Med. 1987; 16:72337.
  • 18
    Lam W, Sze PC, Sacks HS, Chalmers TC. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of nicotine chewing-gum. Lancet. 1987; 2:2730.
  • 19
    Transdermal Nicotine Study Group. Transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation. Six-month results from two multicenter controlled clinical trials. JAMA. 1991; 266:31338.
  • 20
    Tonnesen P, Fryd V, Hansen M, et al. Effect of nicotine chewing gum in combination with group counseling on the cessation of smoking. N Engl J Med. 1988; 318:158.
  • 21
    Russell MA, Stapleton JA, Feyerabend C, et al. Targeting heavy smokers in general practice: randomised controlled trial of transdermal nicotine patches. Br Med J. 1993;306:130812.
  • 22
    Cummings SR, Coates TJ, Richard RJ, et al. Training physicians in counseling about smoking cessation. A randomized trial of the “Quit for Life” program. Ann Intern Med. 1989; 110:6407.
  • 23
    Strecher VJ, O'Malley MS, Villagra VG, et al. Can residents be trained to counsel patients about quitting smoking? Results from a randomized trial. J Gen Intern Med. 1991; 6:917.
  • 24
    Lando HA, Hellerstedt WL, Pirie PL, McGovern PG. Brief supportive telephone outreach as a recruitment and intervention strategy for smoking cessation. Am J Public Health. 1992; 82: 416.
  • 25
    Schwartz JL. Review and Evaluation of Smoking Cessation Methods: the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1987; NIH Publication No. 872940.
  • 26
    Public Health Service. Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives—Full Report with Commentary. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1991; DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 9150212.
  • 27
    Frank E, Winkleby MA, Altman DG, Rockhill B, Fortmann SP. Predictors of physician's smoking cessation advice. JAMA. 1991; 266:313944.
  • 28
    National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 1991. Hyattsville, MD: Public Health Service, 1992.
  • 29
    Pane GA, Farner MC, Salness KA. Health care access problems of medically indigent emergency department walk-in patients. Ann Emerg Med. 1991; 20:7303.
  • 30
    Kasper JD. The importance of type of usual source of care for children's physician access and expenditures. Med Care. 1987; 25:38698.
  • 31
    Stern RS, Weissman JS, Epstein AM. The emergency department as a pathway to admission for poor and high-cost patients. JAMA. 1991; 266:223843.
  • 32
    Jarvis MJ, Raw M, Russell MA. Randomized controlled trial of nicotine chewing gum. Br Med J. 1982; 285:53740.
  • 33
    Blondal T. Controlled trial of nicotine polacrilex gum with supportive measures. Arch Intern Med. 1989; 149;181821.
  • 34
    DiClemente CC, Prochaska JO, Fairhurst SK, Velicer WF, Velasquez MM, Rossi JS. The process of smoking cessation: an analysis of precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages of change. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1991; 59:295304.
  • 35
    Fagerstrom KO, Heatherton TF, Kozlowski LT. Nicotine addiction and its assessment. Ear Nose Throat J. 1990; 69:7635.
  • 36
    Fagerstrom KO, Schneider NG. Measuring nicotine dependence: A review of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. J Behav Med. 1989; 12:15982.
  • 37
    Fagerstrom KO. Measuring degree of physical dependence to tobacco smoking with reference to individualization of treatment. Addict Behav. 1978; 3:23541.
  • 38
    Pomerleau CS, Pomerleau OF, Majchrzak MJ, Kloska DD, Ma-lakuti R. Relationship between nicotine tolerance questionnaire scores and plasma cotinine. Addict Behav. 1990; 15:7380.
  • 39
    National Center for Health Statistics, Chyba, MM. Utilization of Hospital Emergency and Outpatient Departments, United States, January-June, 1980. National Medical Care Utilization and Expenditure Survey, Preliminary Data Report No. 2. Washington, DC: Public Health Service, 1983; DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 8320000.
  • 40
    CDC. Behavioral risk factor surveillance, 1986–1990. MMWR. 1991;40(SS-4):125.
  • 41
    American Hospital Association. Hospital Statistics, 1992–1993 Edition. Washington, DC: AHA, 1993.
  • 42
    Hogness CG, Engelstad LP, Linck LM, Schorr KA. Cervical cancer screening in an urban emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 1992; 21:9339.
  • 43
    Polis MA, Davey VJ, Collins ED, Smith JP, Rosenthal RE, Kaslow RA. The emergency department as part of a successful strategy for increasing adult immunization. Ann Emerg Med. 1988; 17:10168.
  • 44
    Lowe RA, Berlin M. Pap smears in a public hospital emergency department: a failure of the system. Ann Emerg Med. 1992; 21:9824.
  • 45
    Goldman JM, Feifer R, Stemhagen A, Shofer FS. Is there a need for preventive health care in emergency medicine? Ann Emerg Med. 1990; 19:487.
  • 46
    Goldman JM, Stemhagen A, Erban SB. Preventive medicine in the emergency department: influenza vaccine as a model [abstract). Ann Emerg Med. 1990; 19:487.
  • 47
    American Hospital Association/Centers for Disease Control Health Education Project. Patient Education in Hospital Emergency Departments. Atlanta, GA: CDC Center for Health Promotion and Education, Community Program Development Division, 1982.
  • 48
    Fiore MC. The new vital sign. Assessing and documenting smoking status. JAMA. 1991; 266:31834.
  • 49
    Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC. Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: toward an integrative model of change. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1983; 51:3905.
  • 50
    Murray RP, Connett JE, Lauger GG, Voelker HT. Error in smoking measures: effects of intervention on relations of cotinine and carbon monoxide to self-reported smoking. Am J Public Health. 1993; 83:12517.
  • 51
    Petitti D, Friedman GD, Kahn W. Accuracy of information on smoking habits provided on self-administered research questionnaires. Am J Public Health. 1981; 71:30811.
  • 52
    Anda RF, Remington PL, Sienko DG, David RM. Are physicians advising smokers to quit? The patient's perspective. JAMA. 1987; 257:19169.
  • 53
    CDC. Smoking cessation during previous year among adults— United States, 1990 and 1991. MMWR. 1993; 42:5047.
  • 54
    Cohen SJ, Stookey GK, Katz BP, Drook CA, Smith DM. Encouraging primary care physicians to help smokers quit. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1989; 110:64852.
  • 55
    Windsor RA, Cutter G, Morris J, et al. The effectiveness of smoking cessation methods for smokers in public health maternity clinics: a randomized trial. Am J Public Health. 1985; 75:138992.
  • 56
    Ockene JK. Smoking intervention: the expanding role of the physician. Am J Public Health. 1987; 77:7823.
  • 57
    Ockene JK, Aney J, Goldberg RJ, Klar JM, Williams JW. A survey of Massachusetts physicians' smoking intervention practices. Am J Prev Med. 1988; 4:1420.
  • 58
    CDC. Counseling practices of primary care physicians—North Carolina, 1991. MMWR. 1992;41:5658.
  • 59
    Prochazka A, Koziol-McLain J, Tomlinson D, Lowenstein SR. Smoking cessation counseling by emergency physicians: opinions, knowledge, and training needs. Acad Emerg Med. 1995; 2(3): 2116.