Objective: To use an electronic model of human circulation to compare the hemodynamic effects of different durations of chest compression during external CPR, both with and without interposed abdominal compression (IAC).
Methods: An electrical analog model of human circulation was studied on digital computer workstations using SPICE, a general-purpose circuit simulation program. In the model the heart and blood vessels were represented as resistive-capacitive networks, pressures as voltages, blood flow as electric current, blood inertia as inductance, and cardiac and venous valves as diodes. External pressurization of the heart and great vessels, as would occur in IAC-CPR, was simulated by the alternate application of damped rectangular voltage pulses, first between intrathoracic vascular capacitances and ground, and then between intra-abdominal vascular capacitances and ground. With this model compression frequencies of 60, 80, and 100 cycles/min and duty cycles ranging from 10% to 90%, both with and without IAC, were compared.
Results: There was little difference in hemodynamics when the overall compression frequency was varied between 60 and 100 cycles/min, but the effects of duty cycle were substantial. During both standard CPR and IAC-CPR, total flow and coronary flow were greatest at chest compression durations equal to 30% of cycle time. Interposed abdominal compression substantially improved simulated systemic blood flow and perfusion pressure at all duty cycles, compared with standard CPR without abdominal compression. Mean arterial pressure > 75 mm Hg and artificial cardiac output > 2.0 L/min could be generated by 30% duty cycle compression with IAC. Coronary perfusion in the model is clearly optimized at 30% chest compression (i.e., high-impulse chest compression technique).
Conclusion: Combined high-impulse chest compressions and IACs maximize blood flow during CPR in the electrical analog model of human circulation.