• Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolan Mandell R., Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 4th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1990.
  • Wyngaarden JB, Smith LH. Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 18th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1988.
  • Gilman AG, Rail TW, Nies AS, Taylor P. Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed. New York: Pergamon Press, 1990.
  • Mandell GL, Mildvan D. Atlas of Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia: Current Medicine, 1994.
  • Ward A., Clissold SP. Pentoxifylline: a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its therapeutic efficacy. Drugs. 1987; 34:5097.
  • Porter JM, Culter BS, Lee BY, et al. Pentoxifylline efficacy in treatment of intermittent claudication: multiccnter controlled double-blind trial with objective assessment of chronic occlusive arterial disease patients. Am Heart J. 1982; 104:6672.
  • Sullivan GW, Patselas TN, Redick JA, Mandell GL. Enhancement of chemo-taxis and protection of mice from infection. Trans Assoc Am Phys. 1984; 97:33745.
  • Sullivan GW, Carper HT, Sullivan JA, Mandell GL. Inhibition of proinflammatory neutrophil activation by pentoxifylline. Clin Res. 1987; 35:657A.
  • Sullivan GW, Carper HT, Novick WJ, Mandell GL. Inhibition of the inflammatory action of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor (alpha) on neutrophil function by pentoxifylline. Infect Immunol. 1988; 56:17229.
  • Novick WJ, Sullivan GW, Mandell GL. New pharmacological studies with pentoxifylline. Biorheology. 1990; 27(3–4):44954.
  • Bernard GR, Luce JM, Sprung CL, et al. High dose corticosteroids in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1987; 317:156570.
  • Streiter RM, Remick DG, Ward PA, et al. Cellular and molecular regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by pentoxifylline. Biochem Biophys Res Community. 1988; 155:12306.
  • Mandell GL, Sullivan GW, Novick WJ. Method of inhibiting the activity of leukocyte derived cytokines. U.S. Patent Nos. 4,965,271, Oct 23, 1990; 5,096,906, Mar 17, 1992; 5,196,429, Mar 23, 1993; 5,196,430, Mar 23, 1993; 5,272,153, Dec 21, 1993.
  • Beutler B., Cerami A. Tumor necrosis, cachexia, shock, and inflammation: a common mediator. Annu Rev Biochem. 1988; 57:50518.
  • Chan PH, Schmidley JW, Fishman RA, Longar SM. Brain injury, edema, and vascular permeability changes induced by oxygen-derived free radicals. Neurology. 1984; 34:31520.