• 1
    Eckstein M., Alo K.. The effect of a quality improvement program on paramedic on-scene times for patients with penetrating trauma. Acad Emerg Med. 1999; 6: 1915.
  • 2
    Berwick D. M.. Continuous improvement as an ideal in health care. N Engl J Med. 1989; 320: 536.
  • 3
    Nelson E. C., Mohr J. J., Batalden P. B., Plume S. K.. Improving health care, part I: the clinical value compass. J Qual Improve. 1996; 22: 24358.
  • 4
    Wennberg J. E.. Future directions for small area variations. Med Care. 1993; 31(suppl): YS75YS80.
  • 5
    Iezzoni L. I.. Monitoring quality of care: what do we need to know Inquiry. 1993; 30: 1124.
  • 6
    Juran J. M.. Juran on Planning for Quality. New York : Free Press, 1988.
  • 7
    Shewhart W. A.. Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product. New York : D. Van Nostrand Company, 1931.
  • 8
    Walton M.. The Deming Management Method. New York : Putnam Publishing Group, 1986.
  • 9
    JuranJ. M., GrynaF. M., (eds). Juran's Quality Control Handbook (4th edition) New York : McGraw-Hill, 1988.
  • 10
    Ishikawa K.. What is Total Quality Control? The Japanese Way. Englewood Cliffs , NJ : Prentice Hall, 1985.
  • 11
    Berwick D. M., Godfrey A. B., Roessner J.. Curing Health Care: New Strategies for Quality Improvement. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass, 1990.
  • 12
    Gaucher E. J., Coffey R. J.. Total Quality in Healthcare. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass, 1993.
  • 13
    Blumenthal D.. Part I: quality of care—what is it?. New Engl J Med. 1996; 335: 8914.
  • 14
    Nolan T. W., Schall M. W., Berwick D. M., Roessner J.. Guide to Reducing Delays and Waiting Times throughout the Healthcare System. Boston : Institute for Healthcare Improvement, 1996.
  • 15
    Fernandes CMB, Daya M. R., Barry S., Palmer N.. Emergency department patients who leave without seeing a physician: the Toronto Hospital experience. Ann Emerg Med. 1994; 24: 10926.
  • 16
    Fernandes CMB, Christenson J. M.. Use of continuous quality improvement to facilitate patient flow through the triage and fast-track areas of an emergency department. J Emerg Med. 1995; 13: 84755.
  • 17
    Fernandes CMB, Christenson J. M., Price A.. Continuous quality improvement reduces length of stay for fast-track patients in an emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 1996; 3: 25863.
  • 18
    Fernandes CMB, Price A., Christenson J. M.. Does reduced length of stay decrease the number of emergency department patients who leave without seeing a physician?. J Emerg Med. 1997; 15: 3979.
  • 19
    National heart attack program coordinating committee 60 minutes to treat working group: emergency department: rapid identification and treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Ann Emerg Med. 1994; 23: 31129.
  • 20
    Stiell I. G.. Cranial computed tomography for nontrauma patients: critical appraisal of a decision rule. Acad Emerg Med. 1997; 4: 6502.
  • 21
    Ellrodt G., Cook D. J., Lee J., Cho M., Hunt D., Weingarten S.. Evidence-based disease management. JAMA. 1997; 278: 168792.
  • 22
    Fernandes CMB, Walker R., Price A., Marsden J., Haley L.. Root cause analysis of laboratory delays to an emergency department. J Emerg Med. 1997; 15: 7359.
  • 23
    Overton D. T.. Turning quality-related activities into quality research. Acad Emerg Med. 1995; 2:13943.