• 1
    McGaig L. F., Stussman B. J.. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 1996 Emergency Department Summary. Advanced data from vital health statistics; no. 293. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 1997; DHSS publication no. (PHS) 98-1250.
  • 2
    Tucker A., Lewis J.. Procedures in practice. Passing a nasogastric tube. Br Med J. 1980; 281: 11289.
  • 3
    Singer A. J., Richman P. B., La Vefre R., McCuskey C. F., Thode H. C. Jr. Comparison of patient and practitioner assessments of pain from commonly performed emergency department procedures [abstract]. Acad Emerg Med. 1997; 4: 4045.
  • 4
    Dauphinee K.. Nasotracheal intubation. Emerg Clin North Am. 1988; 6: 71523.
  • 5
    Gross J. B., Hartigan M. L., Schaffer D. W.. A suitable substitute for 4% cocaine before blind nasotracheal intubation: 3% lidocaine-0.25% phenylephrine nasal spray. Anesth Analg. 1984; 63: 9158.
  • 6
    Nott M. R., Hughes J. H.. Topical anaesthesia for insertion of nasogastric tubes. Eur J Anaesth. 1995; 12: 28790.
  • 7
    Hedenbro J. L., Ekelund M., Jansson O., Linblom A.. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate topical anesthesia of the pharynx in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endoscopy. 1992; 24: 5857.
  • 8
    Middleton R. M., Shah A., Kirkpatrick M. B.. Topical nasal anesthesia for flexible bronchoscopy. A comparison of four methods in normal subjects and in patients undergoing transnasal bronchoscopy. Chest. 1991; 99: 10936.
  • 9
    Lachter J., Jacobs R., Lavy R., et al. Topical pharyngeal anesthesia for easing endoscopy: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Gastrointest Endosc. 1990; 36: 1921.
  • 10
    Samuels L. E.. Nasogastric and feeding tube placement. In: RobertsJ. R., HedgesJ. R. (eds). Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine (3rd ed). Philadelphia : W. B. Saunders, 1998, pp 6938.
  • 11
    Wallenstein S. L.. Scaling clinical pain and pain relief. In: BromanB. (ed). Pain Measurement in Man: Neuropsychological Correlates of Pain. New York : Elsevier Science, 1984, pp 38996.
  • 12
    Chuah S. Y., Crowson C. P., Dronfield M. W.. Topical anesthesia in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Br Med J 1991; 303: 695.
  • 13
    Hollander J. E., Valentine S. M., Brogan G. X. Jr. Academic associate program: integrating clinical emergency medicine research with undergraduate education. Acad Emerg Med. 1997; 4: 22530.
  • 14
    Revill S. I., Robinson R. M., Hogg MIJ. The reliability of a linear analogue for evaluating pain. Anesthesia. 1976; 31: 11918.
  • 15
    Maxwell C.. Sensitivity and accuracy of the visual analogue scale. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1978; 6: 1524.
  • 16
    Dexter F., Chestnut D. H.. Analysis of statistical tests to compare visual analogue scale measurements among groups. Anesthesiology. 1995; 82: 896902.
  • 17
    Todd K. H., Funk K. G., Funk J. P.. Clinical significance of reported changes in pain severity. Ann Emerg Med. 1996; 27: 4859.
  • 18
    Verlander J. M., Johns M. E.. The clinical use of cocaine. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1981; 14: 52131.
  • 19
    Kasemsuwan L. K., Griffiths M. V.. Lignocaine with adrenaline: is it as effective as cocaine in rhinological practice?. Clin Otolaryngol. 1996; 21: 1279.
  • 20
    Sessler C. N., Vitaliti J. C., Cooper K. R., et al. Comparison of 4% lidocaine/0.5% phenylephrine with 5% cocaine: which dilates the nasal passage better?. Anesthesiology. 1986; 64: 2747.
  • 21
    Tarver C. P., Noorily A. D., Sakaj C. S.. A comparison of cocaine vs. lidocaine with oxymetazoline for use in nasal procedures. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993; 109: 6539.
  • 22
    Noorily A. D., Noorily S. H., Otto R. A.. Cocaine, lidocaine, tetracaine: which is best for topical nasal anesthesia?. Anesth Analg. 1995; 81: 7247.
  • 23
    Noorily A. D., Otto R. A., Noorily S. H.. Intranasal anesthetic effects of lidocaine and tetracaine compared. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995; 113: 3704.
  • 24
    Daneshmend T. K., Bell G. D., Logan RFA. Sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: results of a nationwide survey. Gut. 1991; 32: 125.
  • 25
    Max M. B., Laska E. M.. Single dose analgesic comparisons. In: MaxM. B., PortenoyR. K., LaskaE. M. (eds). Advances in Pain Research and Therapy. New York : Raven Press, 1991; 18: 96.