• 1
    Bellamy R, Safar P, Tisherman SA. et al. Suspended animation for delayed resuscitation. Crit Care Med. 1996; 24(suppl): S24S47.
  • 2
    Siesjo BK. Mechanisms of ischemic brain damage. Crit Care Med. 1988; 16: 95463.
  • 3
    Kramer RS, Sanders AP, Lesage AM. et al. The effect of profound hypothermia on preservation of cerebral ATP content during circulatory arrest. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1968; 56: 699709.
  • 4
    Michenfelder JD, Theye RA. The effects of anesthesia and hypothermia on canine cerebral ATP and lactate during anoxia produced by decapitation. Anesthesiology. 1970; 33: 4309.
  • 5
    Gisvold SE, Sterz F, Abramson NS. et al. Cerebral resuscitation from cardiac arrest: treatment potentials. Crit Care Med. 1996; 24(suppl): S69S80.
  • 6
    Safar P. Resuscitation from clinical death: pathophysiologic limits and therapeutic potentials. Crit Care Med. 1988; 16: 92341.
  • 7
    Bigelow WG, Linsay WK, Greenwood WF. Hypothermia: its possible role in cardiac surgery. Ann Surg. 1950; 132: 84966.
  • 8
    Hickey PR. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest: current status and future directions. Mt Sinai J Med. 1985; 52: 5417.
  • 9
    Livesay JJ, Cooley DA, Reul GJ. et al. Resection of aortic arch aneurysms: a comparison of hypothermic techniques in 60 patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 1983; 36: 1928.
  • 10
    Connolly JE, Roy A, Guernsey JM. et al. Bloodless surgery by means of profound hypothermia and circulatory arrest. Effect on brain and heart. Ann Surg. 1965; 162: 72437.
  • 11
    Capone A, Safar P, Radovsky A. et al. Complete recovery after normothermic hemorrhagic shock and profound hypothermic circulatory arrest of. minutes in dogs. J Trauma. 1996; 40: 38895.
  • 12
    Tisherman SA, Safar P, Radovsky A. et al. Profound hypothermia.(less than 10 degrees C) compared with deep hypothermia (15 degrees C) improves neurologic outcome in dogs after two hours' circulatory arrest induced to enable resuscitative surgery. J Trauma. 1991; 31: 105161.
  • 13
    Safar P, Abramson NS, Angelos M. et al. Emergency cardiopulmonary bypass for resuscitation from prolonged cardiac arrest. Am J Emerg Med. 1990; 8: 5567.
  • 14
    Woods R, Safar P, Takasu A. et al. Hypothermic aortic arch flush for preservation during exsanguination cardiac arrest of 15 minutes in dogs. J Trauma. 1999; 47: 102838.
  • 15
    Radovsky A, Safar P, Sterz F. et al. Regional prevalence and distribution of ischemic neurons in dog brains 96 hours after cardiac arrest of 0 to 20 minutes. Stroke. 1995; 26: 212734.
  • 16
    Mariak Z, Lewko J, Luczaj J. et al. The relationship between directly measured human cerebral and tympanic temperatures during changes in brain temperatures. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1994; 69: 5459.
  • 17
    Stone JG, Young WL, Smith CR. et al. Do standard monitoring sites reflect true brain temperature when profound hypothermia is rapidly induced and reversed Anesthesiology. 1995; 82: 34451.
  • 18
    Bellamy RF. The causes of death in conventional land warfare: implications for combat casualty care research. Milit Med. 1984; 149: 5562.
  • 19
    Ordog GJ, Wasserberger J, Balasubramanium S. et al. Civilian gunshot wounds—outpatient management. J Trauma. 1994; 36: 10611.
  • 20
    Tisherman SA, Vandevelde K, Safar P. et al. Future directions for resuscitation research. V. Ultra-advanced life support. Resuscitation. 1997; 34: 28193.
  • 21
    Gillinov AM, Redmond JM, Zehr KJ. et al. Superior cerebral protection with profound hypothermia during circulatory arrest. Ann Thorac Surg. 1993; 55: 14329.
  • 22
    Busto R, Dietrich WD, Globus MY. et al. Small differences in intraischemic brain temperature critically determine the extent of ischemic neuronal injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1987; 7: 72938.
  • 23
    Xiao F, Safar P, Alexander H. Peritoneal cooling for mild cerebral hypothermia after cardiac arrest in dogs. Resuscitation. 1995; 30: 519.
  • 24
    Angelos M, Safar P, Reich HA. Comparison of cardiopulmonary resuscitation with cardiopulmonary bypass after prolonged cardiac arrest in dogs. Reperfusion pressures and neurologic recovery. Resuscitation. 1991; 21: 12135.
  • 25
    Safar P, Stezoski SW, Klain M. Portable and modular cardiopulmonary bypass apparatus and associated aortic balloon catheter. US patent #5,308,320, issued May 3, 1994.
  • 26
    Phillips SJ, Ballentine B, Slonine D. et al. Percutaneous initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann Thorac Surg. 1983; 36: 2235.
  • 27
    Bregman D, Nichols AB, Weiss MB. et al. Percutaneous intraaortic balloon insertion. Am J Cardiol. 1980; 46: 2614.
  • 28
    Behringer W, Prueckner S, Kentner RA. et al. Complete cerebral recovery after 30 min cardiac arrest (CA) in dogs by preservative cold aortic flush [abstract]. Circulation. 1999; 100(18): A1649.