Abstract. Objective: To evaluate the achievement gof women in academic emergency medicine (EM) relative to men. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional mail survey of all emergency physicians who were employed at three-fourths full-time equivalent or greater at the 105 EM residency programs in the United States from August 1997 to December 1997. The following information was obtained: demographics, training and practice issues, roles and responsibilities in academic EM, percentage of time spent per week in clinical practice, teaching, administrative and research activities, academic productivity, and funding. Results: Of the 1,575 self-administered questionnaires distributed by the office of the chairs, 1,197 (76%) were returned. Two hundred seventy-four (23%) of the respondents were women, and 923 (77%) were men. There was a significant difference noted between men and women in all demographic categories. The numbers of respondents who were nonwhite were extremely small in the sample and, therefore, the authors are hesitant to draw any conclusions based on race/ethnicity. There was no difference in training in EM between men and women (82% vs 82%, p = 0.288), but a significantly higher proportion of male respondents were board-certified in EM (84% vs 76%, p < 0.002). Women in academic EM were less likely to hold major leadership positions, spent a greater percentage of time in clinical and teaching activities, published less in peer-reviewed journals, and were less likely to achieve senior academic rank in their medical schools. Conclusions: These findings mirror those of most medical specialties: academic achievement of women in academic EM lags behind that of men. The paucity of minority physicians in academic EM didn't permit analysis of their academic achievements.