SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Rathlev NK, Chessare J, Olshaker J, et al. Time series analysis of variables associated with daily mean emergency department length of stay. Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 49:26571.
  • 2
    Brealey RA, Myers SC. Principles of Corporate Finance. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2000.
  • 3
    Graff L. Observation Medicine. Stoneham, MA: Andover Medical Publishers, 1993.
  • 4
    Brillman J, Mathers-Dunbar L, Graff L, Joseph T, Leikin JB, Schultz C. Management of observation units. American College of Emergency Physicians. Ann Emerg Med. 1995; 25:82330.
  • 5
    Roberts R, Graff LG IV. Economic issues in observation unit medicine. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2001; 19:1933.
  • 6
    Ross MA, Graff LG IV. Principles of observation medicine. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2001; 19:117.
  • 7
    American Hospital Association, Lewin Group. TrendWatch chartbook: trends affecting hospitals and health systems. In: Hospital Payment-to-Cost Ratios for Medicare, Medicaid and Private Payers, 1993–2003. Washington, DC: American Hospital Association, 2006.
  • 8
    Jagminas L, Partridge R. A comparison of emergency department versus inhospital chest pain observation units. Am J Emerg Med. 2005; 23:1113.
  • 9
    Rydman RJ, Isola ML, Roberts RR, et al. Emergency department observation unit versus hospital inpatient care for a chronic asthmatic population: a randomized trial of health status outcome and cost. Med Care. 1998; 36:599609.
  • 10
    Rydman RJ, Roberts RR, Albrecht GL, Zalenski RJ, McDermott M. Patient satisfaction with an emergency department asthma observation unit. Acad Emerg Med. 1999; 6:17883.
  • 11
    Rydman RJ, Zalenski RJ, Roberts RR, et al. Patient satisfaction with an emergency department chest pain observation unit. Ann Emerg Med. 1997; 29:10915.
  • 12
    Farkouh ME, Smars PA, Reeder GS, et al. A clinical trial of a chest-pain observation unit for patients with unstable angina. Chest Pain Evaluation in the Emergency Room (CHEER) Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339:18828.
  • 13
    Roberts RR, Zalenski RJ, Mensah EK, et al. Costs of an emergency department-based accelerated diagnostic protocol vs hospitalization in patients with chest pain: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1997; 278:16706.
  • 14
    Hackbarth GM. Medpac Letter to CMS Administrator Mark McClellan. Available at: http://www.medpac.gov/publications/other_reports/Jun06_MedPAC_DME_COMMENT_SC.pdf. Accessed Jan 22, 2008.
  • 15
    Crenshaw LA, Lindsell CJ, Storrow AB, Lyons MS. An evaluation of emergency physician selection of observation unit patients. Am J Emerg Med. 2006; 24:2719.
  • 16
    Kovacs G, Croskerry P. Clinical decision making: an emergency medicine perspective. Acad Emerg Med. 1999; 6:94752.
  • 17
    Mace SE, Graff L, Mikhail M, Ross M. A national survey of observation units in the United States. Am J Emerg Med. 2003; 21:52933.
  • 18
    Gray A, Gill S, Airey M, Williams R. Descriptive epidemiology of adult critical care transfers from the emergency department. Emerg Med J. 2003; 20:2426.
  • 19
    Rourke JT, Kennard M. Emergency patient transfers from rural hospitals: a regional study. Can J Emerg Med. 2001; 3:296301.
  • 20
    Papson JP, Russell KL, Taylor DM. Unexpected events during the intrahospital transport of critically ill patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2007; 14:5747.
  • 21
    Peacock WF. Heart failure management in the emergency department observation unit. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2004; 46:46585.
  • 22
    Goodacre S, Dixon S. Is a chest pain observation unit likely to be cost effective at my hospital? Extrapolation of data from a randomised controlled trial. Emerg Med J. 2005; 22:41822.
  • 23
    Greenberg RA, Dudley NC, Rittichier KK. A reduction in hospitalization, length of stay, and hospital charges for croup with the institution of a pediatric observation unit. Am J Emerg Med. 2006; 24:81821.
  • 24
    Norlund A, Marke LA, Af Geijerstam JL, Oredsson S, Britton M. Immediate computed tomography or admission for observation after mild head injury: cost comparison in randomised controlled trial. Br Med J. 2006; 333:469.
  • 25
    Ross MA, Compton S, Medado P, Fitzgerald M, Kilanowski P, O’Neil BJ. An emergency department diagnostic protocol for patients with transient ischemic attack: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 50:10919.