• 1
    Fowlkes JE, Dwyer DJ, Oser RL, Salas E. Event-based approach to training (EBAT). Int J Aviat Psychol. 1998; 8:20921.
  • 2
    Jentsch F, Bowers C, Berry D, Dougherty W, Hitt JM III. Generating line-oriented flight simulation scenarios with the RRLOE computerized tool set. In: 45th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society; 2001. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2001.
  • 3
    Fowlkes JE, Lane NE, Salas E, Franz T, Oser R. Improving the measurement of team performance: The TARGETs methodology. Mil Psychol. 1994; 6:4761.
  • 4
    Dwyer DJ, Fowlkes JE, Oser RL, Salas E, Lane NE. Team performance measurement in distributed environments: The TARGETs methodology. In: BrannickMT, SalasE, PrinceC, (eds). Team Performance Assessment and Measurement: Theory, Methods, and Applications. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1997: 13753.
  • 5
    Silvestri S, Wu TS, Salas E, Rosen MA, Lyons R, Lazarra EH. Beyond the basics: Bringing simulation theory & technology together. In: Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) Academic Assembly. March 2, 2007, Orlando, FL.
  • 6
    Rosen MA, Salas E, Silvestri S, Wu T, Lazzara EH. A measurement tool for simulation-based training in emergency medicine: the Simulation Module for Assessment of Resident Targeted Event Responses (SMARTER) approach. Simul Healthc. 2008; In press.
  • 7
    Gawande A. Better: A Surgeon’s Notes on Performance. New York, NY: Picador, 2008.
  • 8
    Wears RL, Leape LL. Human error in emergency medicine. Ann Emerg Med. 1999; 34:3702.
  • 9
    Wears RL, Perry SJ. Human factors and ergonomics in the emergency department. In: CarayonP, (ed). Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care and Patient Safety. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2007: 85163.
  • 10
    Xiao Y, Hunter WA, MacKenzie CF, Jefferies NJ, Horst RL. Task complexity in emergency medical care and its implications for team coordination. Hum Factors. 1996; 38:63645.
  • 11
    Hobgood CD, Riviello RJ, Jouriles N, Hamilton G. Assessment of communication and interpersonal skills competencies. Acad Emerg Med. 2002; 9:125769.
  • 12
    Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Root causes for sentinel events, 2006. Available at: Accessed Feb 27, 2008.
  • 13
    Salas E, Rosen MA, King HB. Managing teams managing crises: Principles for teamwork in the ER and beyond. Theor Issues Ergon Sci. 2007; 8:38194.
  • 14
    Sachdeva AK. Educational interventions to address the core competencies in surgery. Surgery. 2004; 135:437.
  • 15
    Salas E, Wilson-Donnelly KA, Sims DE, Burke CS, Priest HA. Teamwork training for patient safety: Best practices and guiding principles. In: CarayonP (ed). Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care and Patient Safety. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2007: 80322.
  • 16
    Salas E, Burke CS, Cannon-Bowers JA. What we know about designing and delivering team training: Tips and guidelines. In: KraigerK, (ed). Creating, Implementing, and Managing Effective Training and Development. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2002: 23559.
  • 17
    Salas E, Priest HA, Wilson KA, Burke CS. Scenario-based training: Improving military mission performance and adaptability. In: AdlerAB, CastroCA, BrittTW (eds). Military Life: The Psychology of Serving in Peace and Combat. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2006: 3253.
  • 18
    Bond WF, Lammers RL, Spillane LL, et al. The use of simulation in emergency medicine: a research agenda. Acad Emerg Med. 2007; 14:35363.
  • 19
    Driskell JE, Johnston JH. Stress exposure training. In: Cannon-BowersJA, SalasE (eds). Making Decisions under Stress. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1998: 191217.
  • 20
    Rosenzweig S, Brigham TP, Snyder RD, Xu G, McDonald AJ. Assessing emergency medicine resident communication skills using videotaped patient encounters: gaps in inter-rater reliability. J Emerg Med. 1999; 17:35561.
  • 21
    Arvey RD, Murphy KR. Performance evaluation in work settings. Ann Rev Psychol. 1998; 49:14168.
  • 22
    Smith-Jentsch K, Zeisig RL, Acton B, McPherson JA. Team dimensional training: a strategy for guided team self-correction. In: SalasE, Cannon-BowersJA (eds). Making Decisions under Stress: Implications for Individual and Team Training. Washington, DC: APA, 1998: 27197.
  • 23
    Cannon-Bowers J, Tannenbaum SI, Salas E, Volpe CE. Defining team competencies and establishing team training requirements. In: GuzzoR, SalasE (eds). Team Effectiveness and Decision Making in Organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1995: 33080.
  • 24
    Baker DP, Gustafson S, Beaubien J, Salas E, Barach P. Medical Teamwork and Patient Safety: The Evidence-Based Relationship. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2005, AHRQ Publication No. 05–0053.
  • 25
    Alonso A, Baker D, Holtzman A, et al. Reducing medical error in the military health system: how can team training help? Hum Resour Manageme Rev. 2006; 16:396415.
  • 26
    Kozlowski SW, Klein KJ. A multilevel approach to theory and research in organizations: contextual, temporal, and emergent processes. In: KleinKJ, KozlowskiSW (eds). Multilelvel Theory, Research, and Methods in Organizations: Foundations, Extensions, and New Directions. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2000: 390.
  • 27
    Dismukes RK, Smith GM. Facilitation and Debriefing in Aviation Training Operations. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2000.
  • 28
    Rudolph JW, Simon R, Dufresne RL, Raemer DB. There’s no such thing as “nonjudgmental” debriefing: A theory and method for debriefing with good judgment. Simul Healthc. 2006; 1:4955.
  • 29
    Salas E, Rosen MA, Burke CS, Nicholson D, Howse WR. Markers for enhancing team cognition in complex environments: the power of team performance diagnosis. Special supplement on operational applications of cognitive performance enhancement technologies. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2007; 78:B7785.
  • 30
    Rosen MA, Salas E, Wilson KA, et al. Measuring team performance for simulation-based training: adopting best practices for healthcare. Simul Healthc. 2008; 3:3341.
  • 31
    Swing SR. Assessing the ACGME general competencies: general considerations and assessment methods. Acad Emerg Med. 2002; 9:127888.
  • 32
    DeVita MA, Schaefer J, Lutz J, Wang H, Dongilli T. Improving medical emergency team (MET) performance using a novel curriculum and a computerized human patient simulator. Qual Saf Health Care. 2005; 14:32631.
  • 33
    Flin R, Maran N. Identifying and training non-technical skills for teams in acute medicine. Qual Saf Health Care. 2004; 13(Suppl 1):i804.
  • 34
    Bond WF, Spillane LL. The use of simulation for emergency medicine resident assessment. Acad Emerg Med. 2002; 9:12959.
  • 35
    Lammers RL. Simulation: The new teaching tool. Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 49:5057.
  • 36
    Salas E, Cannon-Bowers JA. The science of training: a decade of progress. Annu Rev Pscyhol. 2001; 52:47199.