Presented at the 2008 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, “The Science of Simulation in Healthcare: Defining and Developing Clinical Expertise,” Washington, DC, May 28, 2008.
Deliberate Practice and Acquisition of Expert Performance: A General Overview
Article first published online: 5 SEP 2008
© 2008 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Academic Emergency Medicine
Special Issue: Proceedings of The 2008 AEM Consensus Conference: The Science of Simulation in Healthcare: Defining and Developing Clinical Expertise Guest Editors:Amy Kaji, MD, PhD David C. Cone, MD
Volume 15, Issue 11, pages 988–994, November 2008
How to Cite
Anders Ericsson, K. (2008), Deliberate Practice and Acquisition of Expert Performance: A General Overview. Academic Emergency Medicine, 15: 988–994. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00227.x
- Issue published online: 3 NOV 2008
- Article first published online: 5 SEP 2008
- Received July 7, 2008; revisions received July 9 and July 10, 2008; accepted July 10, 2008.
Traditionally, professional expertise has been judged by length of experience, reputation, and perceived mastery of knowledge and skill. Unfortunately, recent research demonstrates only a weak relationship between these indicators of expertise and actual, observed performance. In fact, observed performance does not necessarily correlate with greater professional experience. Expert performance can, however, be traced to active engagement in deliberate practice (DP), where training (often designed and arranged by their teachers and coaches) is focused on improving particular tasks. DP also involves the provision of immediate feedback, time for problem-solving and evaluation, and opportunities for repeated performance to refine behavior. In this article, we draw upon the principles of DP established in other domains, such as chess, music, typing, and sports to provide insight into developing expert performance in medicine.