• 1
    Joint Commission. Preventing infant death and injury during delivery. Sentinel Event Alert, Issue30. Available at: Accessed Aug 27, 2008.
  • 2
    Risser DT, Rice MM, Salisbury ML, Simon R, Jay GD, Berns SD. The potential for improved teamwork to reduce medical errors in the emergency department. The MedTeams Reasearch Consortium. Ann Emerg Med. 1999; 34:37383.
  • 3
    Salas E, Wilson KA, Lazzara EH, et al. Simulation-based training for patient safety: 10 principles that matter. J Pat Saf. 2008; 4:38.
  • 4
    Morey JC, Simon R, Jay GD, et al. Error reduction and performance improvement in the emergency department through formal teamwork training: Evaluation results of the MedTeams project. Health Serv Res. 2002; 37:155381.
  • 5
    Shapiro MJ, Morey JC, Small SD, et al. Simulation based teamwork training for emergency department staff: does it improve clinical team performance when added to an existing didactic teamwork curriculum? Qual Saf Health Care. 2004; 13:41721.
  • 6
    Kobayashi L, Shapiro MJ, Gutman DC, Jay G. Multiple Encounter Simulation Scenario (MESS) for clinical skills and patient safety training of personnel working in high acuity multi-patient medical environments. Acad Emerg Med. 2007; 14:11418.
  • 7
    Salas E, Sims DE, Burke CS. Is there a “big five” in teamwork? Small Group Res. 2005; 36:55599.
  • 8
    Kneebone RL. Crossing the line: Simulation and boundary areas. Simul Healthc. 2006; 1:1603.
  • 9
    Reznek M, Smith-Coggins R, Howard S, et al. Emergency medicine crisis resource management (EMCRM): Pilot study of a simulation-based crisis management course for emergency medicine. Acad Emerg Med. 2003; 10:3869.
  • 10
    McLaughlin SA, Doezema D, Sklar DP. Human simulation in emergency medicine training: a model curriculum. Acad Emerg Med. 2002; 9:13108.
  • 11
    Bond WF, Deitrick LM, Arnold DC, et al. Using simulation to instruct emergency medicine residents in cognitive forcing strategies. Acad Med. 2004; 79:43846.
  • 12
    Fernandez R, Kozlowski SW, Shapiro MJ, Salas E. Toward a definition of teamwork in emergency medicine. Acad Emerg Med. 2008; 15:110412.
  • 13
    Leape LL, Berwick DM. Five years after To Err is Human: what have we learned? JAMA. 2005; 293:238490.
  • 14
    Salas E, Cannon-Bowers JA. The science of training: a decade of progress. Annu Rev Psychol. 2001; 52:47199.
  • 15
    Rosen MA, Salas E, Wilson KA, et al. Measuring team performance in simulation-based training: adopting best practices for healthcare. Simul Healthc. 2008; 3:3341.
  • 16
    Rosen MA, Salas E, Wu TS, et al. Promoting teamwork: an event-based approach to simulation-based teamwork training for emergency medicine residents. Acad Emerg Med. 2008; 15:119098.
  • 17
    Awad S, Fagan S, Bellows C, et al. Bridging the communication gap in the operating room with medical team training. Am J Surg. 2005; 190:7704.
  • 18
    Young GJ, Charns MP, Daley J, Forbes MG, Henderson W, Khuri SF. Best practices for managing surgical services: the role of coordination. Health Care Manag Rev. 1997; 22:7281.
  • 19
    Clemmer TP, Spuhler VJ, Berwick DM, Nolan TW. Cooperation: the foundation of improvement. Ann Intern Med. 1998; 128:10049.
  • 20
    Burke CS. Team task analysis. In: StantonN, HendrickH, KonzS, ParsonsK, SalasE (eds.). Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics Methods. London, England: Taylor & Francis, 2005, pp 18.
  • 21
    Cannon-Bowers JA, Tannenbaum SI, Salas E, Volpe CE. Defining team competencies and establishing team training requirements. In: GuzzoR, SalasE, & Associates (eds.). Team Effectiveness and Decision Making in Organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1995, pp 33380.
  • 22
    Salas E, Klein C, King H, et al. Debriefing medical teams: 12 evidence-based best practices and tips. Jt Comm J Qual Pat Saf. 2008; 34(9):51827.
  • 23
    Kirkpatrick D. Evaluating Training Programs: The Four Levels. 2nd ed. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers Inc., 1998.
  • 24
    Kendall D, Salas E. Measuring team performance: review of current methods and consideration of future needs. In: NessJW, TepeV, RitzerD (eds.). The Science and Simulation of Human Performance; Advances in Human Performance and Cognitive Engineering Research. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier, 2004, pp 30726.
  • 25
    Bennet JB. The essence of morale. Mil Rev. 1942; 22:502.
  • 26
    Briggs GE, Naylor JC. Team versus individual training, training task fidelity and task organization effects on transfer performed by three-man teams. J Appl Psychol. 1965; 49:38792.
  • 27
    Beaubien JM, Baker DP, Holzman MA. How military research can improve team training effectiveness in other high risk industries. In: Proceedings of the 45th Annual Conference of the International Military Testing Association. Pensacola, FL, Nov 3–5, 2003; 67987. Available at: Accessed May 5, 2005.
  • 28
    BrannickME, SalasE, PrinceC (eds.). Team Performance Assessment and Measurement: Theory, Methods and Applications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997.
  • 29
    Cooper GE, White MD, Lauber JK. Resource management on the flightdeck: Proceedings of a NASA/Industry Workshop. NASA Conference Publication No. CP-2120. Moffett Field, CA: NASA-Ames Research Center, 1980.
  • 30
    Lauber JK. Cockpit resource management: background and overview. In: OrladyHW, FousheeHC (eds.). Cockpit Resource Management Training: Proceedings of the NASA/MAC Workshop. NASA Conference Publication No. 2455. Moffett Field, CA: NASA-Ames Research Center, 1987.
  • 31
    Helmreich RL, Wilhelm JA. Outcomes of crew resource management training. Int J Aviat Psychol. 1991; 1:287300.
  • 32
    Helmreich RL, Merritt AC, Wilhelm JA. The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. Int J Aviat Psychol. 1999; 9:1932.
  • 33
    Wiener EL, Kanki BG, Helmreich RL. Cockpit Resource Management. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1993.
  • 34
    Klinect JR, Murray P, Merritt A, Helmreich RL. Line operations safety audit (LOSA): definition and operating characteristics. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Dayton, OH: Ohio State University, 2003, pp 6638. Available at: Accessed Jun 30, 2008.
  • 35
    Avermaete JAG van. NOTECHS: Non-Technical Skill Evaluation in JAR-FCL; National Lucht-en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium, National Aerospace Laboratory NLR-TP-98518, 1988. Available at: Accessed Jun 30, 2008.
  • 36
    Gaba DM, Fish KJ, Howard SK. Crisis Management in Anesthesiology. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone Inc, 1994, pp 545.
  • 37
    Flin R, Martin L. Behavioral Markers for Crew Resource Management: A review of current practice. Int J Aviat Psychol. 2001; 11:95118. Available at: Accessed Jun 30, 2008.
  • 38
    Healey AN, Undre S, Vincent CA. Developing Observational Measures of Performance in Surgical Teams. Qual Saf Health Care. 2004; 13:ii33i40. Available at: Accessed Jun 30, 2008.
  • 39
    Thomas EJ, Sexton JB, Helmreich RL. Translating teamwork behaviours from aviation to healthcare: development of behavioural markers for neonatal resuscitation. Qual Saf Health Care. 2004; 13:i57i64.
  • 40
    Flin R, Maran N. Identifying and training non-technical skills for teams in acute medicine. Qual Saf Health Care. 2004; 13:i80i84. Available at: Accessed Jun 30, 2008.
  • 41
    Baker DP, Gustafson S, Beaubien J, Salas E, Barach P. Literature Review: Medical Teamwork and Patient Safety: The Evidence-based Relation. Publication No. 05-053, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Apr. 2005. Available at: Accessed Jun 30, 2008.
  • 42
    Frankel A, Gardner R, Maynard L, Kelly A. Using the Communication and Teamwork Skills (CATS) Assessment to Measure Health Care Team Performance. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2007; 33:54958.
  • 43
    Yule S, Flin R, Paterson-Brown S, Maran N. Non-technical skills for surgeons in the operating room: a review of the literature. Surgery. 2006; 139:1409.
  • 44
    Flin R, Yule S, McKenzie L, Paterson-Brown S, Maran N. Attitudes to teamwork and safety in the operating room. Surgery. 2006; 4:14551.
  • 45
    Yule S, Flin R, Paterson-Brown S, Maran N, Rowley D. Development of a rating system for surgeons’ non-technical skills. Med Educ. 2006; 40:1098104.
  • 46
    Flin R, Yule S, Paterson-Brown S, Maran N, Rowley D, Youngson G. Teaching surgeons about non-technical skills. Surgery. 2007; 5:869.
  • 47
    Institute of Medicine. To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999.
  • 48
    Kozlowski SW, Gully SM, Nason ER, Smith EM. Developing adaptive teams: a theory of compilation and performance across levels and time. In: IlgenDR, PulakosED (eds.). The Changing Nature of Work and Performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1999.
  • 49
    Marks MA, Zaccaro SJ, Mathieu JE. Performance implications of leader briefings and team interaction training for adaptation to novel environments. J Appl Psychol. 2000; 85:97186.
  • 50
    Burke SC, Stagl KC, Klein C, Goodwin GF, Salas E, Halpin SM. What type of leadership behaviors are functional in teams? A meta-analysis. Leadership Q. 2000; 17:288307.
  • 51
    Stagl KC, Salas E, Burk CS. Best practices in team leadership: what team leaders do to facilitate team effectiveness. In: CongerJ, RiggoRE (eds.). The Practice of Leadership: Developing the Next Generation of Leaders. San Francisco, CA: Jossey and Bass, 2007, pp 17297.
  • 52
    Rosen MA, Salas E, Silvestri S, Wu T, Lazzara EH. A measurement tool for simulation-based training in emergency medicine: the Simulation Module for Assessment of Resident Targeted Event Responses (SMARTER) approach. Simul Healthc. 2008; in press.
  • 53
    Fletcher G, Flin R, McGeorge P, et al. Anaesthetists’ non-technical skills (ANTS): evaluation of a behavioural marker system. Br J Anaesth. 2003; 90:5808.