Does Team Training Work? Principles for Health Care

Authors

  • Eduardo Salas PhD,

    1. From the Department of Psychology and the Institute for Simulation and Training, University of Central Florida (ES, DD, SJW), Orlando, FL; and the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs), TRICARE Management Activity (HK), Washington, DC.
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  • Deborah DiazGranados MS,

    1. From the Department of Psychology and the Institute for Simulation and Training, University of Central Florida (ES, DD, SJW), Orlando, FL; and the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs), TRICARE Management Activity (HK), Washington, DC.
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  • Sallie J. Weaver MS,

    1. From the Department of Psychology and the Institute for Simulation and Training, University of Central Florida (ES, DD, SJW), Orlando, FL; and the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs), TRICARE Management Activity (HK), Washington, DC.
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  • Heidi King MS

    1. From the Department of Psychology and the Institute for Simulation and Training, University of Central Florida (ES, DD, SJW), Orlando, FL; and the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs), TRICARE Management Activity (HK), Washington, DC.
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  • Presented at the 2008 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, “The Science of Simulation in Healthcare: Defining and Developing Clinical Expertise,” Washington, DC, May 28, 2008.

  • Disclaimer: All opinions expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official opinion or position of the University of Central Florida, or the Department of Defense.

Address for correspondence and reprints: Eduardo Salas, PhD; e-mail: esalas@ist.ucf.edu.

Abstract

Teamwork is integral to a working environment conducive to patient safety and care. Team training is one methodology designed to equip team members with the competencies necessary for optimizing teamwork. There is evidence of team training’s effectiveness in highly complex and dynamic work environments, such as aviation and health care. However, most quantitative evaluations of training do not offer any insight into the actual reasons why, how, and when team training is effective. To address this gap in understanding, and to provide guidance for members of the health care community interested in implementing team training programs, this article presents both quantitative results and a specific qualitative review and content analysis of team training implemented in health care. Based on this review, we offer eight evidence-based principles for effective planning, implementation, and evaluation of team training programs specific to health care.

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