• 1
    Wang HE, Seitz SR, Hostler D, Yealy DM. Defining the learning curve for paramedic student endotracheal intubation. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2005; 9:15662.
  • 2
    Johnston BD, Seitz SR, Wang HE. Limited opportunities for paramedic student endotracheal intubation training in the operating room. Acad Emerg Med. 2006; 13:10515.
  • 3
    Wang HE, Kupas DF, Hostler D, Cooney R, Yealy DM, Lave JR. Procedural experience with out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation. Crit Care Med. 2005; 33:171821.
  • 4
    Wang HE, Yealy DM. How many attempts are required to accomplish out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation? Acad Emerg Med. 2006; 13:3727.
  • 5
    Jemmett ME, Kendal KM, Fourre MW, Burton JH. Unrecognized misplacement of endotracheal tubes in a mixed urban to rural emergency medical services setting. Acad Emerg Med. 2003; 10:9615.
  • 6
    Katz SH, Falk JL. Misplaced endotracheal tubes by paramedics in an urban emergency medical services system. Ann Emerg Med. 2001; 37:327.
  • 7
    Aijian P, Tsai A, Knopp R, Kallsen GW. Endotracheal intubation of pediatric patients by paramedics. Ann Emerg Med. 1989; 18:48994.
  • 8
    Garza AG, Algren DA, Gratton MC, Ma OJ. Populations at risk for intubation nonattempt and failure in the prehospital setting. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2005; 9:1636.
  • 9
    Glaeser PW, Linzer J, Tunik MG, Henderson DP, Ball J. Survey of nationally registered emergency medical services providers: pediatric education. Ann Emerg Med. 2000; 36:338.
  • 10
    Tibballs J, Kinney S. A prospective study of outcome of in-patient paediatric cardiopulmonary arrest. Resuscitation. 2006; 71:3108.
  • 11
    Gerein RB, Osmond MH, Stiell IG, Nesbitt LP, Burns S, for the OSG. What are the etiology and epidemiology of out-of-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest in Ontario, Canada? Acad Emerg Med. 2006; 13:6538.
  • 12
    Stratton SJ, Underwood LA, Whalen SM, Gunter CS. Prehospital pediatric endotracheal intubation: a survey of the United States. Prehosp Disaster Med. 1993; 8:3236.
  • 13
    Bandura A. Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1986.
  • 14
    Bandura A. Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educ Psychol. 1993; 28:11748.
  • 15
    Maibach EW, Schieber RA, Carroll MF. Self-efficacy in pediatric resuscitation: implications for education and performance. Pediatrics. 1996; 97:949.
  • 16
    Gausche M, Lewis RJ, Stratton SJ, et al. Effect of out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation on survival and neurological outcome: a controlled clinical trial. JAMA. 2000; 283:78390.
  • 17
    Gausche-Hill M, Lewis RJ, Gunter CS, Henderson DP, Haynes BE, Stratton SJ. Design and implementation of a controlled trial of pediatric endotracheal intubation in the out-of-hospital setting. Ann Emerg Med. 2000; 36:35665.
  • 18
    Craven KO, Froman RD. Development of a pediatric skill self-efficacy scale. J Nurs Meas. 1993; 1:12533.
  • 19
    Henderson DP, Gausche M, Goodrich SM, Poore PD, Michael WB, Lewis RJ. Education of paramedics in pediatric airway management: Effects of different retraining methods on self-efficacy and skill retention [abstract]. Acad Emerg Med. 1998; 5:429.
  • 20
    Pulkstenis E, Robinson TJ. Goodness-of-fit tests for ordinal response regression models. Stat Med. 2004; 23:9991014.
  • 21
    Kovacs G, Bullock G, Ackroyd-Stolarz S, Cain E, Petrie D. A randomized controlled trial on the effect of educational interventions in promoting airway management skill maintenance. Ann Emerg Med. 2000; 36:3019.
  • 22
    Garza AG, Gratton MC, Coontz D, Noble E, Ma OJ. Effect of paramedic experience on orotracheal intubation success rates. J Emerg Med. 2003; 25:2516.
  • 23
    Mulcaster JT, Mills J, Hung OR, et al. Laryngoscopic intubation: learning and performance. Anesthesiology. 2003; 98:237.
  • 24
    Gausche M. Pediatric continuing education for out-of-hospital providers: Is it time to mandate review of pediatric knowledge and skills? Ann Emerg Med. 2000; 36:72.
  • 25
    Simon HK, Sullivan F. Confidence in performance of pediatric emergency medicine procedures by community emergency practitioners. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1996; 12:3369.
  • 26
    Institute of Medicine. Committee of the Future of Emergency Care in the U.S. Health System. Emergency Care for Children: Growing Pains. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2006.