• 1
    Institute of Medicine. The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System. Available at: Accessed Jul 9, 2009.
  • 2
    The Institute of Medicine Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the U.S. Health System Findings and Recommendations. Health Subcommittee, Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives. Washington, DC; 2006.
  • 3
    Hirshon JM, Morris DM. Emergency medicine and the health of the public: the critical role of emergency departments in US public health. Emerg Med Clin N Am. 2006; 24:8159.
  • 4
    Rhodes KV, Gordon JA, Lowe RA, et al. Preventive care in the emergency department, Part I: clinical preventive services--are they relevant to emergency medicine? Acad Emerg Med. 2000; 7:103641.
  • 5
    Rhodes KV, Pollock DA. The future of emergency medicine public health research. Emerg Med Clin N Am. 2006; 24:105373.
  • 6
    Pollock DA, Lowery DW, O’Brien PM. Emergency medicine and public health: new steps in old directions. Ann Emerg Med. 2001; 38:67583.
  • 7
    Government of the United States. Chart of government structure and agencies. Available at: Accessed Aug 18, 2009.
  • 8
    Montefiore Medical Center. USDA Grant to Benefit Mount Hope Community Food Project. Available at: Accessed Jul 8, 2009.
  • 9
    National Institute of Standards and Technology. Recovery Act Measurement Science and Engineering Fellowship Program. May 26, 2009. Available at: Accessed Jul 8, 2009.
  • 10
    The University of Chicago Division of Biological Sciences - Department of Medicine. Emergency Resuscitation Center (ERC). Available at: Accessed Jul 8, 2009.
  • 11
    National Institutes of Health, Network(s) for Developing PTSD Risk Assessment Tools (R21). Aug 29, 2008. Available at: Accessed Jul 8, 2009.
  • 12
    Johns Hopkins University. National Center for the Study of Preparedness and Catastrophic Event Response. Available at: Accessed Jul 8, 2009.
  • 13
    Bozeman WP, Hauda WE, Heck JJ, et al. Safety and injury profile of conducted electrical weapons used by law enforcement officers against criminal suspects. Ann Emerg Med. 2009; 53:4809.
  • 14
    Kothari C, Cerulli C, Marcus S, Rhodes KV. Perinatal status & help-seeking for intimate partner violence. J Womens Health. In press.
  • 15
    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. National EMS Research Agenda. Dec 31, 2001. Available at: Accessed Jul 8, 2009.
  • 16
    National Institutes of Health. NIH Organizational Chart. Available at: Accessed July 16, 2009.
  • 17
    Gentilello LM, Rivara FP, Donovan DM, et al. Alcohol interventions in a trauma center as a means of reducing the risk of injury recurrence. Ann Surg. 1999; 230:47383.
  • 18
    Monti PM, Colby SM, Barnett NP, et al. Brief intervention for harm reduction with alcohol-positive older adolescents in a hospital emergency department. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999; 67:98994.
  • 19
    Nilsen P, Baird J, Mello MJ, et al. A systematic review of emergency care brief alcohol interventions for injury patients. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2008; 35:184201.
  • 20
    Cunningham R, Bernstein SL, Walton M, et al. Alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs: future directions for screening and intervention in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2009; 16:0000.
  • 21
    Burke BL, Arkowitz H, Menchola M. The efficacy of motivational interviewing: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2003; 71:84361.
  • 22
    Fiore MC, Bailey WC, Cohen SJ, et al. Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2000.
  • 23
    Bernstein J, Bernstein E, Tassiopoulos K, et al. Brief motivational intervention at a clinic visit reduces cocaine and heroin use. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005; 77:4959.
  • 24
    Madras BK, Compton WM, Avula D, et al. Screening, brief interventions, referral to treatment (SBIRT) for illicit drug and alcohol use at multiple healthcare sites: comparison at intake and 6 months later. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009; 99:28095.
  • 25
    World Health Organization. The effectiveness of a brief intervention for illicit drugs linked to the alcohol, smoking, and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST) in primary health care settings: a technical report of phase III findings of the WHO ASSIST Randomized control trial. Available at: Accessed June 25, 2009.
  • 26
    Beautrais A, Gibb S, Faulkner A, Mulder R. A randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention to reduce repeat presentations to the emergency department for suicide attempt [abstract]. Ann Emerg Med. 2009; 51:474.
  • 27
    Larkin GL. Screening for adolescent firearms-carrying: one more way to save a life [editorial]. Ann Emerg Med. 2003; 42:80810.
  • 28
    Larkin GL, Hamann CJ, Brown B, Schwann C, George V. Computerized feedback to emergency physicians improves rates of identification and psychosocial referral for suicidal ideation [abstract]. Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 50:S42.
  • 29 Detecting Risk of Suicide in a Pediatric Emergency Department. June 9, 2009. Available at: Accessed Jul 8, 2009.
  • 30
    D’Onofrio G, Nadel ES, Degutis LC, et al. Improving emergency medicine residents’ approach to patients with alcohol problems: a controlled educational trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2002; 40:5062.
  • 31
    Hunt K, Weber E, Showstack J, Colby DC, Callaham ML. Characteristics of frequent users of emergency departments. Ann Emerg Med. 2006; 48:18.
  • 32
    TeutschSM, ChurchillRE, eds. Principles and Practice of Public Health Surveillance. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • 33
    Kwon N, Raven MC, Chiang WK, et al. Emergency physicians’ perspectives on smallpox vaccination. Acad Emerg Med. 2003; 10:599605.
  • 34
    Moran GJ, Krishnadasan A, Gorwitz RJ, et al. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections among patients in the emergency department. New Engl J Med. 2006; 355:66674.
  • 35
    Talan DA, Krishnadasan A, Abrahamian FM, et al. Prevalence and risk factor analysis of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole- and fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli infection among emergency department patients with pyelonephritis. Clin Infect Dis. 2008; 47:11508.
  • 36
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Syndromic surveillance for bioterrorism following the attacks on the World Trade Center--New York City, 2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002; 51:1315.
  • 37
    D’Avolio DA, Feldman J, Mitchell P, et al. Access to care and health-related quality of life among older adults with nonurgent emergency department visits. Geriatric Nurs. 2008; 29:2406.
  • 38
    Hoot NR, Aronsky D. Systematic review of emergency department crowding: causes, effects, and solutions. Ann Emerg Med. 2008; 52:12636.
  • 39
    Redstone P, Vancura JL, Barry D, et al. Nonurgent use of the emergency department. J Ambulatory Care Manag. 2008; 31:3706.
  • 40
    Magid DJ, Asplin BR, Wears RL. The quality gap: searching for the consequences of emergency department crowding. Ann Emerg Med. 2004; 44:5863.
  • 41
    Solberg LI, Maciosek MV, Sperl-Hillen JM, et al. Does improved access to care affect utilization and costs for patients with chronic conditions? Am J Manag Care. 2004; 10:71722.
  • 42
    Asplin B. Show me the money! Managing access, outcomes, and cost in high-risk populations. Ann Emerg Med. 2004; 43:1747.
  • 43
    Asplin BR, Magid DJ, Rhodes KV, Solberg LI, Lurie N, Camargo CA Jr. A conceptual model of emergency department crowding. Ann Emerg Med. 2004; 42:17380.
  • 44
    Lammers RL, Davenport M, Korley F, et al. Teaching and assessing procedural skills using simulation: metrics and methodology. Acad Emerg Med. 2008; 15:107987.
  • 45
    Sullivan AF, Camargo CA Jr, Cleary PD, et al. The national emergency department safety study: study rationale and design. Acad Emerg Med. 2007; 14:11829.
  • 46
    US Department of Health and Human Services. HHS provides $1.4 billion more to states and hospitals for terrorism preparedness. September 2. Available at: Accessed Jul 9, 2009.
  • 47
    University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences. Nelson County Health System Will Coordinate HRSA Grant. Available at: Accessed Jul 9, 2009.