• 1
    Meyer J. Age: 2000, Census 2000 Brief. Washington DC: US Census Bureau, 2001. Available at: Accessed Nov 17, 2009.
  • 2
    Schwab CW, Shapiro MB, Kauder DR, Geriatric trauma: patterns, care and outcome. In: MattoxKL, FelizianoDV, MooreEE (eds). Trauma. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2000, pp 1099114.
  • 3
    Fleming B. Emergency case. Head injury in patients using warfarin. Can Fam Physician. 2001; 47:7278.
  • 4
    Kennedy DM, Cipolle MD, Pasquale MD, Wasser T. Impact of preinjury warfarin use in elderly trauma patients. J Trauma. 2000; 48:4513.
  • 5
    Ferrera PC, Bartfield JM. Outcomes of anticoagulated trauma patients. Am J Emerg Med. 1999; 17:1546.
  • 6
    Karni A, Holtzman R, Bass T, et al. Traumatic head injury in the anticoagulated elderly patient: a lethal combination. Am Surg. 2001; 67:1098100.
  • 7
    Lavoie A, Ratte S, Clas D, et al. Preinjury warfarin use among elderly patients with closed head injuries in a trauma center. J Trauma. 2004; 56:8027.
  • 8
    Copes WS, Champion HR, Sacco WJ, Lawnick MM, Keast SL, Bain LW. The Injury Severity Score revisited. J Trauma. 1988; 28:6977.
  • 9
    Cohen DB, Rinker C, Wilberger JE. Traumatic brain injury in anticoagulated patients. J Trauma. 2006; 60:5537.
  • 10
    Parmar KA, Rao S, Abu-Zidan FM. Head injuries in warfarinised patients. Singapore Med J. 2006; 47:6768.
  • 11
    Pieracci FM, Eachempati SR, Shou J, Hydo LJ, Barie PS. Degree of anticoagulation, but not warfarin use itself, predicts adverse outcomes after traumatic brain injury in elderly trauma patients. J Trauma. 2007; 63:52530.
  • 12
    Ivascu FA, Howells GA, Junn FS, Bair HA, Bendick PJ, Janczyk RJ. Predictors of mortality in trauma patients with intracranial hemorrhage on preinjury aspirin or clopidogrel. J Trauma. 2008; 65:7858.
  • 13
    Boulis NM, Bobek MP, Schmaier A, Hoff JT. Use of factor IX complex in warfarin-related intracranial hemorrhage. Neurosurgery. 1999; 45:11138.
  • 14
    Kawamata T, Takeshita M, Kubo O, Izawa M, Kagawa M, Takakura K. Management of intracranial hemorrhage associated with anticoagulant therapy. Surg Neurol. 1995; 44:43842.
  • 15
    Yasuda CL, Morita ME, Nishimori FY, Yasuda AM, Alves HL. [Chronic subdural hematoma: study of 161 patients and the relationship with coagulation abnormalities] (Portuguese). Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2003; 61:10114.
  • 16
    Makris M, Greaves M, Phillips WS, Kitchen S, Rosendaal FR, Preston EF. Emergency oral anticoagulant reversal: the relative efficacy of infusions of fresh frozen plasma and clotting factor concentrate on correction of the coagulopathy. Thromb Haemost. 1997; 77:47780.
  • 17
    Schulman S. Clinical practice. Care of patients receiving long-term anticoagulant therapy. N Engl J Med. 2003; 349:67583.
  • 18
    Bosch J, Thabut D, Bendtsen F, et al. Recombinant factor VIIa for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis: a randomized, double-blind trial. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127:112330.
  • 19
    Diprose P, Herbertson MJ, O’Shaughnessy D, Gill RS. Activated recombinant factor VII after cardiopulmonary bypass reduces allogeneic transfusion in complex non-coronary cardiac surgery: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study. Br J Anaesth. 2005; 95:596602.
  • 20
    Friederich PW, Geerdink Mg, Spataro M, et al. The effect of the administration of recombinant activated factor VII (NovoSeven) on perioperative blood loss in patients undergoing transabdominal retropubic prostatectomy: the PROSE study. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2000; 11(Suppl 1):S12932.
  • 21
    Lodge JP, Jonas S, Oussoultzoglou E, et al. Recombinant coagulation factor VIIa in major liver resection: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Anesthesiology. 2005; 102:26975.
  • 22
    Raobaikady R, Redman J, Ball JA, Maloney G, Grounds RM. Use of activated recombinant coagulation factor VII in patients undergoing reconstruction surgery for traumatic fracture of pelvis or pelvis and acetabulum: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Anaesth. 2005; 94:58691.
  • 23
    Boffard KD, Riou B, Warren B, et al. Recombinant factor VIIa as adjunctive therapy for bleeding control in severely injured trauma patients: two parallel randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials. J Trauma. 2005; 59:815.
  • 24
    Narayan RK, Maas AI, Marshall LF, Servadei F, Skolnick BE, Tillinger MN. Recombinant factor VIIA in traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage: results of a dose-escalation clinical trial. Neurosurgery. 2008; 62:77686.
  • 25
    Stein DM, Dutton RP, Kramer ME, Handley C, Scalea TM. Recombinant factor VIIa: decreasing time to intervention in coagulopathic patients with severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. 2008; 64:6207.
  • 26
    Mayer SA, Brun NC, Begtrup K, et al. Recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 2005; 352:77785.
  • 27
    Dager WE, King JH, Regalia RC, et al. Reversal of elevated international normalized ratios and bleeding with low-dose recombinant activated factor VII in patients receiving warfarin. Pharmacotherapy. 2006; 26:10918.
  • 28
    Stein DM, Dutton RP, Kramer ME, Scalea TM. Reversal of coagulopathy in critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury: recombinant factor VIIa is more cost-effective than plasma. J Trauma. 2009; 66:6372.
  • 29
    Baglin T. Management of warfarin (coumarin) overdose. Blood Rev. 1998; 12:918.
  • 30
    Worster A, Bledsoe RD, Cleve P, Fernandes CM, Upadhye S, Eva K. Reassessing the methods of medical record review studies in emergency medicine research. Ann Emerg Med. 2005; 45:44851.
  • 31
    Baker SP, O’Neill B, Haddon W Jr, Long WB. The injury severity score: a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care. J Trauma. 1974; 14:18796.
  • 32
    Maas AI, Hukkelhoven CW, Marshall LF, Steyerberg EW. Prediction of outcome in traumatic brain injury with computed tomographic characteristics: a comparison between the computed tomographic classification and combinations of computed tomographic predictors. Neurosurgery. 2005; 57:117382.
  • 33
    Koch GG, Landis JR, Freeman JL, Freeman DH Jr, Lehnen RC. A general methodology for the analysis of experiments with repeated measurement of categorical data. Biometrics. 1977; 33:13358.
  • 34
    Deveras RA, Kessler CM. Reversal of warfarin-induced excessive anticoagulation with recombinant human factor VIIa concentrate. Ann Intern Med. 2002; 137:8848.
  • 35
    Lin J, Hanigan WC, Tarantino M, Wang J. The use of recombinant activated factor VII to reverse warfarin-induced anticoagulation in patients with hemorrhages in the central nervous system: preliminary findings. J Neurosurg. 2003; 98:73740.
  • 36
    Kalina M, Tinkoff G, Gbadebo A, Veneri P, Fulda G. A protocol for the rapid normalization of INR in trauma patients with intracranial hemorrhage on prescribed warfarin therapy. Am Surg. 2008; 74:85861.
  • 37
    Mayer SA, Brun NC, Begtrup K, et al. Efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 2008; 358:212737.
  • 38
    Hsia CC, Chin-Yee IH, McAlister VC. Use of recombinant activated factor VII in patients without hemophilia: a meta-analysis of randomized control trials. Ann Surg. 2008; 248:618.
  • 39
    Stanworth SJ, Birchall J, Doree CJ, Hyde C. Recombinant factor VIIa for the prevention and treatment of bleeding in patients without haemophilia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007; 2:CD005011.