• 1
    Siegel B. Health tracking from the field: the emergency department: rethinking the safety net for the safety net. Health Affairs. Web Exclusive ( March 24, 2004; W4:1468.
  • 2
    O’Shea JS. The Crisis in America’s Emergency Rooms and What Can Be Done. The Heritage Foundation. Executive Summary Backgrounder #2092. December 28, 2007. Available at: Accessed Feb 20, 2010.
  • 3
    Lambe S, Washington DL, Fink A, et al. Trends in the use and capacity of California’s emergency departments, 1990–1999. Ann Emerg Med. 2002; 39:38996.
  • 4
    Melnick GA, Nawathe AC, Bamezai A, Green L. Emergency department capacity and access in California, 1990–2001: an economic analysis. Health Affairs. Web Exclusive Available at: Accessed Feb 20, 2010.
  • 5
    Burt CW, McCaig LF. Staffing, capacity, and ambulance diversion in emergency departments: United States, 2003–04. Adv Data. 2006; 376:124.
  • 6
    Fields WW. From the field: emergency care in California: robust capacity or busted access? Health Aff. Web Exclusive. Available at: Accessed Feb 20, 2010.
  • 7
    Ludwick A, Fu R, Warden C. Distances to emergency department and to primary care provider’s office affect emergency department use in children. Acad Emerg Med. 2009; 16:4117.
  • 8
    Lee JE, Sung JH, Ward WB, Fos PJ, Lee WJ, Kim JC. Utilization of the emergency room: impact of geographic distance. Geospat Health. 2007; 1:24353.
  • 9
    Institute of Medicine. At the Breaking Point. The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.
  • 10
    U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Characteristics of emergency departments serving high volumes of safety-net patients: United States, 2000. Vital Health Stat. 2004; 13:123.
  • 11
    Baker D, Stevens C, Brook R. Determinants of emergency department use: are race and ethnicity important? Ann Emerg Med. 1996; 28:67782.
  • 12
    Hong R, Baumann BM, Boudreaux ED. The emergency department for routine healthcare: race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and perceptual factors. J Emerg Med. 2007; 32:14958.