• 1
    American College of Emergency Physicians. Policy Statement: emergency ultrasound guidelines. Ann Emerg Med. 2009; 53:55070.
  • 2
    Mayron R, Gaudio FE, Plummer D, Asinger R, Elsperger J. Echocardiography performed by emergency physicians: impact on diagnosis and therapy. Ann Emerg Med. 1988; 17:1504.
  • 3
    Melniker LA, Leibner E, McKenney MG, Lopez P, Briggs WM, Mancuso CA. Randomized controlled clinical trial of point-of-care, limited ultrasonography for trauma in the emergency department: the first sonography outcomes assessment program trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2006; 48:22735.
  • 4
    Plummer D, Brunette D, Asinger R, Ruiz E. Emergency department echocardiography improves outcome in penetrating cardiac injury. Ann Emerg Med. 1992; 21:70912.
  • 5
    Walcher F, Weinlich M, Conrad G, et al. Prehospital ultrasound imaging improves management of abdominal trauma. Br J Surg. 2006; 93:23842.
  • 6
    Heegaard W, Plummer D, Dries D, et al. Ultrasound for the air medical clinician. Air Med J. 2004; 23:203.
  • 7
    Price DD, Wilson SR, Murphy TG. Trauma ultrasound feasibility during helicopter transport. Air Med J. 2000; 19:1446.
  • 8
    Polk JD, Fallon WF Jr, Kovach B, Mancuso C, Stephens M, Malangoni MA. The “Airmedical F.A.S.T.” for trauma patients--the initial report of a novel application for sonography. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2001; 72:4326.
  • 9
    Breitkreutz R, Walcher F, Seeger FH. Focused echocardiographic evaluation in resuscitation management: concept of an advanced life support-conformed algorithm. Crit Care Med. 2007; 35(5 Suppl):S15061.
  • 10
    Ward DI. Prehospital point-of-care ultrasound use by the military [abstract]. Emerg Med Australas. 2007; 19:282.
  • 11
    Lu LH, Choi WM, Wu HR, Liu HC, Chiu WT, Tsai SH. Blunt cardiac rupture with prehospital pulseless electrical activity: a rare successful experience. J Trauma. 2005; 59:148991.
  • 12
    Do JR, McManus J, Harrison B. Use of ultrasonography to avoid an unnecessary procedure in the prehospital combat environment: a case report. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2006; 10:5026.
  • 13
    Polk JD, Fallon WF Jr. The use of focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) by a prehospital air medical team in the trauma arrest patient. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2000; 4:824.
  • 14
    Byhahn C, Bingold TM, Zwissler B, Maier M, Walcher F. Prehospital ultrasound detects pericardial tamponade in a pregnant victim of stabbing assault. Resuscitation. 2008; 76:1468.
  • 15
    Walcher F, Kortum S, Kirschning T, Weihgold N, Marzi I. Optimized management of polytraumatized patients by prehospital ultrasound [German]. Unfallchirurg. 2002; 105:98694.
  • 16
    Lapostolle F, Petrovic T, Lenoir G, et al. Usefulness of hand-held ultrasound devices in out-of-hospital diagnosis performed by emergency physicians. Am J Emerg Med. 2006; 24:23742.
  • 17
    Ma OJ, Norvell JG, Subramanian S. Ultrasound applications in mass casualties and extreme environments. Crit Care Med. 2007; 35(5 Suppl):S2759.
  • 18
    Walcher F, Petrovic T, Heegaard W, et al. Prehospital ultrasound: perspectives from four countries. In: MAJ, MateerJ, BlaivasM, eds. Emergency Ultrasound. New York, NY: McGraw Hill, 2008.
  • 19
    Nelson BP, Chason K. Use of ultrasound by emergency medical services: a review. Int J Emerg Med. 2008; 1:2539.
  • 20
    Noble VE, Nelson BP, Sutingco AN, Marill KA, Cranmer H. Assessment of knowledge retention and the value of proctored ultrasound exams after the introduction of an emergency ultrasound curriculum [abstract]. BMC Med Educ. 2007; 7:40.
  • 21
    Heegaard W, Hildebrandt D, Ho J, Spear D. Paramedic prehospital ultrasound training evaluation [abstract]. Acad Emerg Med. 2008; 15:S46.
  • 22
    Plummer D, Heegaard W, Dries D, Reardon R, Pippert G, Frascone RJ. Ultrasound in HEMS: its role in differentiating shock states. Air Med J. 2003; 22:336.