SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    National Association of EMS Providers. Emergency Medical Services Clinical Practice and Systems Oversight. San Francisco, CA: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2009.
  • 2
    Maio RF, Garrison HG, Spaite DW, et al. Emergency medical services outcomes project I (EMSOP I): prioritizing conditions for outcomes research. Ann Emerg Med. 1999; 33:42332.
  • 3
    Keim SM, Spaite DW, Maio RF, et al. Establishing the scope and methodological approach to out-of-hospital outcomes and effectiveness research. Acad Emerg Med. 2004; 11:106773.
  • 4
    Spaite DW, Maio R, Garrison HG, et al. Emergency Medical Services Outcomes Project (EMSOP) II: developing the foundation and conceptual models for out-of-hospital outcomes research. Ann Emerg Med. 2001; 37:65763.
  • 5
    Garrison HG, Maio RF, Spaite DW, et al. Emergency Medical Services Outcomes Project III (EMSOP III): the role of risk adjustment in out-of-hospital outcomes research. Ann Emerg Med. 2002; 40:7988.
  • 6
    Maio RF, Garrison HG, Spaite DW, et al. Emergency Medical Services Outcomes Project (EMSOP) IV: pain measurement in out-of-hospital outcomes research. Ann Emerg Med. 2002; 40:1729.
  • 7
    Keim SM, Spaite DW, Maio RF, et al. Risk adjustment and outcome measures for out-of-hospital respiratory distress. Acad Emerg Med. 2004; 11:107481.
  • 8
    Centre for Evidence Based Medicine. Levels of Evidence. Available at: http://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=5653. Accessed Jun 22, 2011.
  • 9
    Donabedian A. Advances in health assessment conference discussion panel. J Chronic Dis. 1987; 40(Suppl 1):S18391.
  • 10
    Fletcher RW, Fletcher SW. Clinical Epidemiology: The Essentials. Vol 5. London, England: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 1996.
  • 11
    Cole BB. Physical Rehabilitation Outcome Measures. Toronto, Ontario: Canadian Physiotherapy Association, 1994.
  • 12
    Teasdale G, Jennett B. Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: a practical scale. Lancet. 1974; 304:814.
  • 13
    Balestreri M, Czosnyka M, Chatfield DA, et al. Predictive value of Glasgow Ccoma Scale after brain trauma: change in trend over the past ten years. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004; 75:1612.
  • 14
    Davis DP, Serrano JA, Vilke GM, et al. The predictive value of field versus arrival Glasgow Coma Scale score and TRISS calculations in moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. 2006; 60:98590.
  • 15
    Davis DP, Vadeboncoeur TF, Ochs M, Poste JC, Vilke GM, Hoyt DB. The association between field Glasgow Coma Scale score and outcome in patients undergoing paramedic rapid sequence intubation. J Emerg Med. 2005; 29:3917.
  • 16
    Demetriades D, Kuncir E, Murray J, Velmahos GC, Rhee P, Chan L. Mortality prediction of head Abbreviated Injury Score and Glasgow Coma Scale: analysis of 7,764 head injuries. J Am Coll Surg. 2004; 199:21622.
  • 17
    Foreman BP, Caesar RR, Parks J, et al. Usefulness of the abbreviated injury score and the injury severity score in comparison to the Glasgow Coma Scale in predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. 2007; 62:94650.
  • 18
    Gill M, Steele R, Windemuth R, Green SM. A comparison of five simplified scales to the out-of-hospital Glasgow Coma Scale for the prediction of traumatic brain injury outcomes. Acad Emerg Med. 2006; 13:96873.
  • 19
    Gill M, Windemuth R, Steele R, Green SM. A comparison of the Glasgow Coma Scale score to simplified alternative scores for the prediction of traumatic brain injury outcomes. Ann Emerg Med. 2005; 45:3742.
  • 20
    Holdgate A, Ching N, Angonese L. Variability in agreement between physicians and nurses when measuring the Glasgow Coma Scale in the emergency department limits its clinical usefulness. Emerg Med Australas. 2006; 18:37984.
  • 21
    Kerby JD, MacLennan PA, Burton JN, McGwin G Jr, Rue LW 3rd. Agreement between prehospital and emergency department glasgow coma scores. J Trauma. 2007; 63:102631.
  • 22
    Norwood SH, McAuley CE, Berne JD, Vallina VL, Creath RG, McLarty J. A prehospital glasgow coma scale score < or = 14 accurately predicts the need for full trauma team activation and patient hospitalization after motor vehicle collisions. J Trauma. 2002; 53:5037.
  • 23
    Riechers RG 2nd, Ramage A, Brown W, et al. Physician knowledge of the Glasgow Coma Scale. J Neurotrauma. 2005; 22:132734.
  • 24
    Udekwu P, Kromhout-Schiro S, Vaslef S, Baker C, Oller D. Glasgow Coma Scale score, mortality, and functional outcome in head-injured patients. J Trauma. 2004; 56:10849.
  • 25
    Pal J, Brown R, Fleiszer D. The value of the Glasgow Coma Scale and Injury Severity Score: predicting outcome in multiple trauma patients with head injury. J Trauma. 1989; 29:7468.
  • 26
    Al-Salamah MA, McDowell I, Stiell IG, et al. Initial emergency department trauma scores from the OPALS study: the case for the motor score in blunt trauma. Acad Emerg Med. 2004; 11:83442.
  • 27
    Healey C, Osler TM, Rogers FB, et al. Improving the Glasgow Coma Scale score: motor score alone is a better predictor. J Trauma. 2003; 54:6718.
  • 28
    Meredith W, Rutledge R, Hansen AR, et al. Field triage of trauma patients based upon the ability to follow commands: a study in 29,573 injured patients. J Trauma. 1995; 38:12935.
  • 29
    Ross SE, Leipold C, Terregino C, O’Malley KF. Efficacy of the motor component of the Glasgow Coma Scale in trauma triage. J Trauma. 1998; 45:424.
  • 30
    Champion HR, Sacco WJ, Copes WS, Gann DS, Gennarelli TA, Flanagan ME. A revision of the Trauma Score. J Trauma. 1989; 29:6239.
  • 31
    Bouillon B, Kramer M, Tiling T, Neugebauer E. [Trauma score systems as instruments in quality control. A prospective study on validation of 7 trauma score systems with 612 trauma patients] [German]. Unfallchirurg. 1993; 96:5561.
  • 32
    Bouillon B, Lefering R, Vorweg M, Tiling T, Neugebauer E, Troidl H. Trauma score systems: Cologne validation study. J Trauma. 1997; 42:6528.
  • 33
    Eichelberger MR, Gotschall CS, Sacco WJ, Bowman LM, Mangubat EA, Lowenstein AD. A comparison of the trauma score, the revised trauma score, and the pediatric trauma score. Ann Emerg Med. 1989; 18:10538.
  • 34
    Gilpin DA, Nelson PG. Revised trauma score: a triage tool in the accident and emergency department. Injury. 1991; 22:357.
  • 35
    Jennett B, Teasdale G, Braakman R, Minderhoud J, Knill-Jones R. Predicting outcome in individual patients after severe head injury. Lancet. 1976; 1:10314.
  • 36
    Sasser S. Guidelines for field triage of injured patients. MMWR Recomm Rev. 2009; 58(RR-1):1415.
  • 37
    Gabbe BJ, Cameron PA, Finch CF. Is the revised trauma score still useful? ANZ J Surg. 2003; 73:9448.
  • 38
    Rhee KJ, Mackenzie JR, Burney RE, et al. Rapid acute physiology scoring in transport systems. Crit Care Med. 1990; 18:111923.
  • 39
    Goodacre S, Turner J, Nicholl J. Prediction of mortality among emergency medical admissions. Emerg Med J. 2006; 23:3725.
  • 40
    Olsson T, Terent A, Lind L. Rapid Emergency Medicine Score can predict long-term mortality in nonsurgical emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2004; 11:100813.
  • 41
    Olsson T, Terent A, Lind L. Rapid Emergency Medicine score: a new prognostic tool for in-hospital mortality in nonsurgical emergency department patients. J Intern Med. 2004; 255:57987.
  • 42
    Olsson T, Lind L. Comparison of the rapid emergency medicine score and APACHE II in nonsurgical emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2003; 10:10408.
  • 43
    Gill M, Martens K, Lynch EL, Salih A, Green SM. Interrater reliability of 3 simplified neurologic scales applied to adults presenting to the emergency department with altered levels of consciousness. Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 49:4037.
  • 44
    Haukoos JS, Gill MR, Rabon RE, Gravitz CS, Green SM. Validation of the Simplified Motor Score for the prediction of brain injury outcomes after trauma. Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 50:1824.
  • 45
    Koehler JJ, Baer LJ, Malafa SA, Meindertsma MS, Navitskas NR, Huizenga JE. Prehospital Index: a scoring system for field triage of trauma victims. Ann Emerg Med. 1986; 15:17882.
  • 46
    Koehler JJ, Malafa SA, Hillesland J, et al. A multicenter validation of the prehospital index. Ann Emerg Med. 1987; 16:3805.
  • 47
    Fries GR, McCalla G, Levitt MA, Cordova R. A prospective comparison of paramedic judgment and the trauma triage rule in the prehospital setting. Ann Emerg Med. 1994; 24:8859.
  • 48
    Ornato J,  Mlinek EJ Jr, Craren EJ, Nelson N. Ineffectiveness of the trauma score and the CRAMS scale for accurately triaging patients to trauma centers. Ann Emerg Med. 1985; 14:10614.
  • 49
    Hedges JR, Feero S, Moore B, Haver DW, Shultz B. Comparison of prehospital trauma triage instruments in a semirural population. J Emerg Med. 1987; 5:197208.
  • 50
    Hedges JR, Sacco WJ, Champion HR. An analysis of prehospital care of blunt trauma. J Trauma. 1982; 22:98993.
  • 51
    Qazi K, Kempf JA, Christopher NC, Gerson LW. Paramedic judgment of the need for trauma team activation for pediatric patients. Acad Emerg Med. 1998; 5:10027.
  • 52
    Mulholland SA, Gabbe BJ, Cameron P. Is paramedic judgement useful in prehospital trauma triage? Injury. 2005; 36:1298305.
  • 53
    Lavoie A, Emond M, Moore L, Camden S, Liberman M. Evaluation of the Prehospital Index, presence of high-velocity impact and judgment of emergency medical technicians as criteria for trauma triage. CJEM. 2010; 12:1118.
  • 54
    Newgard CD, Lewis RJ, Jolly BT. Use of out-of-hospital variables to predict severity of injury in pediatric patients involved in motor vehicle crashes. Ann Emerg Med. 2002; 39:48191.
  • 55
    Newgard CD, Hui SH, Griffin A, Wuerstle M, Pratt F, Lewis RJ. Prospective validation of an out-of-hospital decision rule to identify seriously injured children involved in motor vehicle crashes. Acad Emerg Med. 2005; 12:67987.
  • 56
    Smith JS Jr, Bartholomew MJ. Trauma index revisited: a better triage tool. Crit Care Med. 1990; 18:17480.
  • 57
    Bond RJ, Kortbeek JB, Preshaw RM. Field trauma triage: combining mechanism of injury with the prehospital index for an improved trauma triage tool. J Trauma. 1997; 43:2837.
  • 58
    Moront ML, Gotschall CS, Eichelberger MR. Helicopter transport of injured children: system effectiveness and triage criteria. J Pediatr Surg. 1996; 31:11836.
  • 59
    Kellermann AL, Hackman BB, Somes G. Predicting the outcome of unsuccessful prehospital advanced cardiac life support. JAMA. 1993; 270:14336.
  • 60
    Lerner EB, Nichol G, Spaite DW, Garrison HG, Maio RF. A comprehensive framework for determining the cost of an emergency medical services system. Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 49:30413.
  • 61
    Spaite DW, Bobrow BJ, Vadeboncoeur TF, et al. The impact of prehospital transport interval on survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: implications for regionalization of post-resuscitation care. Resuscitation. 2008; 79:616.
  • 62
    Stiell IG, Nesbitt LP, Pickett W, et al. The OPALS Major Trauma Study: impact of advanced life-support on survival and morbidity. CMAJ. 2008; 178:114152.
  • 63
    Stiell IG, Spaite DW, Field B, et al. Advanced life support for out-of-hospital respiratory distress. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356:215664.
  • 64
    Stiell IG, Wells GA, Spaite DW, et al. The Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support (OPALS) study Part II: rationale and methodology for trauma and respiratory distress patients. OPALS Study Group. Ann Emerg Med. 1999; 34:25662.
  • 65
    Valenzuela TD, Spaite DW, Meislin HW, Clark LL, Wright AL, Ewy GA. Case and survival definitions in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Effect on survival rate calculation. JAMA. 1992; 267:2724.
  • 66
    Stiell I, DeMaio V, Nesbitt L, et al. Predictors of survival for out-of-hospital respiratory distress patients in the OPALS study [abstract]. Acad Emerg Med. 2003; 10:4312.
  • 67
    Stiell I, Nesbitt L, Wells G, et al. Multicenter controlled clinical trial to evaluate the impact of advanced life support on out-of-hospital chest pain patients [abstract]. Acad Emerg Med. 2003; 10:5012.
  • 68
    Stiell IG, Wells GA, Spaite DW, et al. The Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support (OPALS) Study: rationale and methodology for cardiac arrest patients. Ann Emerg Med. 1998; 32:18090.
  • 69
    Richard J, Stiell I, Osmond M, et al. How are pediatric patients managed by EMS and what are their outcomes? [abstract] Acad Emerg Med. 2003; 10:443.
  • 70
    Nichol G, Stiell I, Blackburn, et al. Quality of life outcomes for respiratory distress patients treated by EMS [abstract]. Acad Emerg Med. 2003; 10:449.
  • 71
    Ware JE Jr, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care. 1992; 30:47383.
  • 72
    Nichol G, Laupacis A, Stiell IG, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of potential improvements to emergency medical services for victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med. 1996; 27:71120.
  • 73
    Stiell IG, Wells GA, Field BJ, et al. Improved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival through the inexpensive optimization of an existing defibrillation program: OPALS study phase II. Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support. JAMA. 1999; 281:117581.
  • 74
    Nichol G, Stiell IG, Hebert P, Wells GA, Vandemheen K, Laupacis A. What is the quality of life for survivors of cardiac arrest? A prospective study. Acad Emerg Med. 1999; 6:95102.
  • 75
    Stiell I, De Maio V, Nichol G, et al. Predictors of good quality of life in prehospital in prehospital cardiac arrest survivors [abstract]. Acad Emerg Med. 2000; 7:425.