• 1
    Roger VL, Go AS, Lloyd-Jones DM, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update. Circulation. 2011; 123:e18209.
  • 2
    Vaccarino V, Parsons L, Every NR, Barron HV, Krumholz HM. Sex-based differences in early mortality after myocardial infarction. National Registry of Myocardial Infarction Patients. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341:21725.
  • 3
    Vaccarino V, Krumholz HM, Yarzebski J, Gore JM, Goldberg RJ. Sex differences in 2-year mortality after hospital discharge for myocardial infarction. Ann Intern Med. 2001; 134:17381.
  • 4
    Vaccarino V, Parsons L, Peterson ED, Rogers WJ, Kiefe CI, Canto J. Sex differences in mortality after acute myocardial infarction: changes from 1994 to 2006. Arch Intern Med. 2009; 169:176774.
  • 5
    Nguyen HL, Gore JM, Saczynski JS, et al. Age and sex differences and 20-year trends (1986 to 2005) in prehospital delay in patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2010; 3:5908.
  • 6
    Harralson TL. Factors influencing delay in seeking treatment for acute ischemic symptoms among lower income, urban women. Heart Lung. 2007; 36:96104.
  • 7
    Mosca L, Mochari-Greenberger H, Dolor RJ, Newby LK, Robb KJ. Twelve-year follow-up of American women’s awareness of cardiovascular disease risk and barriers to heart health. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2010; 3:1207.
  • 8
    Mosca L, Linfante AH, Benjamin EJ, et al. National study of physician awareness and adherence to cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines. Circulation. 2005; 111:499510.
  • 9
    Chandra NC, Ziegelstein RC, Rogers WJ, et al. Observations of the treatment of women in the United States with myocardial infarction: a report from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction-I. Arch Intern Med. 1998; 158:9818.
  • 10
    Blomkalns AL, Chen AY, Hochman JS, et al., CRUSADE Investigators Gender disparities in the diagnosis and treatment of non-st-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: large-scale observations from the CRUSADE (can rapid risk stratification of unstable angina patients suppress adverse outcomes with early implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines) national quality improvement initiative. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005; 45:8327.
  • 11
    Rathore SS, Chen J, Wang Y, Radford MJ, Vaccarino V, Krumholz HM. Sex differences in cardiac catheterization. JAMA. 2001; 286:284956.
  • 12
    Gan SC, Beaver SK, Houck PM, MacLehose RF, Lawson HW, Chan L. Treatment of acute myocardial infarction and 30-day mortality among women and men. N Engl J Med. 2000; 343:815.
  • 13
    Sheifer SE, Escarce JJ, Schulman KA. Race and sex differences in the management of coronary artery disease. Am Heart J. 2000; 139:84857.
  • 14
    Anderson RD, Pepine CJ. Gender differences in the treatment for acute myocardial infarction--bias or biology? Circulation. 2007; 115:8236.
  • 15
    Gregg EW, Gu Q, Cheng YJ, Narayan V, Cowie CC. Mortality trends in men and women with diabetes, 1971 to 2000. Ann Intern Med. 2007; 147:14955.
  • 16
    Kaul P, Chang WC, Westerhout CM, Graham MM, Armstrong PW. Differences in admission rates and outcomes between men and women presenting to emergency departments with coronary syndromes. Can Med Assoc J. 2007; 177:11939.
  • 17
    Dallongevillle J, De Bacquer D, Heidrich J, et al. Gender differences in the implementation of cardiovascular prevention measures after an acute coronary event. Heart. 2010; 96:17449.
  • 18
    Kaul P, Armstrong PW, Sookram S, Leung BK, Brass N, Welsh RC. Temporal trends in patient and treatment delay among men and women presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Am Heart J. 2011; 161:917.
  • 19
    Chang AM, Mumma B, Sease KL, Robey JL, Shofer FS, Hollander JE. Gender bias in cardiovascular testing persists after adjustment for presenting characteristics and cardiac risk. Acad Emerg Med. 2007; 14:599605.
  • 20
    Ginty CT, Chang AM, Matsuura AC, et al. Lack of sex disparity in cardiovascular testing after coronary computed tomography angiography. Acad Emerg Med. 2012; 19:147152.
  • 21
    Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Women Dominate Hospitalizations for Chest Pain With No Known Cause. Available at: Accessed Dec 6, 2011.
  • 22
    Canto JG, Shlipak MG, Rogers WJ, et al. Prevalence, clinical characteristics, and mortality among patients with myocardial infarction presenting without chest pain. JAMA. 2000; 283:32239.
  • 23
    Løvlien M, Schei B, Hole T. Women with myocardial infarction are less likely than men to experience chest symptoms. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2006; 40:3427.
  • 24
    Chen W, Woods SL, Puntillo KA. Gender differences in symptoms associated with acute myocardial infarction: a review of the research. Heart Lung. 2005; 34:2407.
  • 25
    Arslanian-Engoren C, Patel A, Fang J, et al. Symptoms of men and women presenting with acute coronary syndromes. Am J Cardiol. 2006; 98:117781.
  • 26
    DeVon HA, Zerwic JJ. Symptoms of acute coronary syndromes: are there gender differences? A review of the literature. Heart Lung. 2002; 31:23545.
  • 27
    Goldberg RJ, O’Donnell C, Yarzebski J, Bigelow C, Savageau J, Gore JM. Sex differences in symptom presentation associated with acute myocardial infarction: a population-based perspective. Am Heart J. 1998; 136:18995.
  • 28
    Milner KA, Funk M, Richards S, Wilmes RM, Vaccarino V, Krumholz HM. Gender differences in symptom presentation associated with coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol. 1999; 84:3969.
  • 29
    Čulić V, Eterović D, Mirić D, Silić N. Symptom presentation of acute myocardial infarction: influence of sex, age, and risk factors. Am Heart J. 2002; 144:10127.
  • 30
    Norris CM, Hegadoren KM, Patterson L, Pilote L. Sex differences in prodromal symptoms of patients with acute coronary syndrome: a pilot study. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2008; 23:2731.
  • 31
    Canto JG, Goldberg RJ, Hand MM, et al. Symptom presentation of women with acute coronary syndromes: myth vs reality. Arch Intern Med. 2007; 167:240513.
  • 32
    Smolderen KG, Spertus JA, Nallamothu BK, et al. Health care insurance, financial concerns in accessing care, and delays to hospital presentation in acute myocardial infarction. JAMA. 2010; 303:1392400.
  • 33
    Diamond GA, Forrester JS. Analysis of probability as an aid in the clinical-diagnosis of coronary-artery disease. N Engl J Med. 1979; 300:13508.
  • 34
    Berger JS, Elliott L, Gallup D, et al. Sex differences in mortality following acute coronary syndromes. JAMA. 2009; 302:87482.
  • 35
    Reis SE, Holubkov R, Smith AJ, et al. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is highly prevalent in women with chest pain in the absence of coronary artery disease: results from the NHLBI WISE study. Am Heart J. 2001; 141:73541.
  • 36
    Bugiardini R, Manfrini O, De Ferrari GM. Unanswered questions for management of acute coronary syndrome: risk stratification of patients with minimal disease or normal findings on coronary angiography. Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166:13915.
  • 37
    Beltrame JF, Limaye SB, Horowitz JD. The coronary slow flow phenomenon--a new coronary microvascular disorder. Cardiology. 2002; 97:197202.
  • 38
    Reynolds HR, Srichai MB, Iqbal SN, et al. Mechanisms of myocardial infarction in women without angiographically obstructive coronary artery disease/clinical perspective. Circulation. 2011; 124:141425.
  • 39
    Prinzmetal M, Kennamer R, Merliss R. A variant form of angina pectoris. Am J Med. 1959; 27:37588.
  • 40
    Johnson BD, Shaw LJ, Buchthal SD, et al. Prognosis in women with myocardial ischemia in the absence of obstructive coronary disease: results from the National Institutes of Health-National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored women’s ischemia syndrome evaluation (WISE). Circulation. 2004; 109:29939.
  • 41
    Pepine CJ, Kerensky RA, Lambert CR, et al. Some thoughts on the vasculopathy of women with ischemic heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006; 47:S305.
  • 42
    von Mering GO, Arant CB, Wessel TR, et al. Abnormal coronary vasomotion as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events in women: results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored women’s ischemia syndrome evaluation (WISE). Circulation. 2004; 109:7225.
  • 43
    Gulati M, Cooper-DeHoff RM, McClure C, et al. Adverse cardiovascular outcomes in women with nonobstructive coronary artery disease: a report from the Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation study and the St James Women Take Heart Project. Arch Intern Med. 2009; 169:84350.
  • 44
    Patel MR, Chen AY, Peterson ED, et al. Prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of patients with non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and insignificant coronary artery disease: results from the can rapid risk stratification of unstable angina patients suppress adverse outcomes with early implementation of the ACC/AHA guidelines (CRUSADE) initiative. Am Heart J. 2006; 152:6417.
  • 45
    Shaw LJ, Min JK, Narula J, et al. Sex differences in mortality associated with computed tomographic angiographic measurements of obstructive and nonobstructive coronary artery disease/clinical perspective. Circ Cardiovasc Imag. 2010; 3:47381.