When Government Targets “The State”: Transnational NGO Government and the State in Belize



Two broad trends characterize neoliberal forms of environmental governance: a shift in responsibilities for managing nature from state to nonstate actors and the use of market-based mechanisms and rationalities to manage the environment. In Belize, a transnational alliance of conservation nongovermental organizations (NGOs) has taken responsibility for governing large swaths of Belizean nature. While most analyses of NGOs’ roles in environmental government focus on efforts to manage resource-dependent rural communities, this article explores how this NGO alliance has used ecotourism, a market-based mechanism to fund protected areas, to elicit actions in favor of conservation from state officials.