Presented in part at SAFS, MAFS, MAAFS, CFSF Joint Meeting in Orlando, FL, September 23, 2004, and Promega’s 16th International Symposium on Human Identification in Grapevine, TX, September 29, 2005.
mRNA Profiling for Body Fluid Identification by Multiplex Quantitative RT-PCR*
Article first published online: 15 SEP 2007
Journal of Forensic Sciences
Volume 52, Issue 6, pages 1252–1262, November 2007
How to Cite
Juusola, J. and Ballantyne, J. (2007), mRNA Profiling for Body Fluid Identification by Multiplex Quantitative RT-PCR. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 52: 1252–1262. doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2007.00550.x
- Issue published online: 15 SEP 2007
- Article first published online: 15 SEP 2007
- Received 24 Dec. 2006; and in revised form 4 June 2007, and 6 Jan. 2007; accepted 1 June 2007; published form 21 Dec. 2007.
- forensic science;
- mRNA profiling;
- body fluid identification;
- blood identification;
- saliva identification;
- semen identification;
- menstrual blood identification;
- multiplex real-time PCR
Abstract: An alternative approach to conventional protein-based body fluid identification is gene expression profiling analysis. In the present work, we report the development of sensitive and robust multiplex quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR assays for the identification of blood, saliva, semen, and menstrual blood. Each body fluid assay comprises a triplex system that detects transcripts from two body fluid-specific genes and a housekeeping gene GAPDH. The body fluid-specific genes include erythroid δ-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) and β-spectrin (SPTB) for blood, statherin (STATH) and histatin 3 (HTN3) for saliva, protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2) for semen, and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) and matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10) for menstrual blood. Normalization of both body fluid-specific genes to the housekeeping gene by means of appropriate cycle threshold metrics ensures the high specificity of each assay for its cognate body fluid.