Presented in part at the 60th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 17–23, 2008, in Washington, DC.
The Examination of Commercial Printing Defects to Assess Common Origin, Batch Variation, and Error Rate*
Article first published online: 30 NOV 2009
Journal compilation © 2009 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. No claim to original U.S. government works
Journal of Forensic Sciences
Volume 55, Issue 1, pages 136–140, January 2010
How to Cite
LaPorte, G. M., Stephens, J. C. and Beuchel, A. K. (2010), The Examination of Commercial Printing Defects to Assess Common Origin, Batch Variation, and Error Rate. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 55: 136–140. doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2009.01211.x
All references pertaining to manufacturers and their products do not imply endorsement by the United States Secret Service or the authors.
- Issue published online: 4 JAN 2010
- Article first published online: 30 NOV 2009
- Received 13 Aug. 2008; and in revised form 10 Dec. 2008; accepted 14 Dec. 2008
- forensic science;
- questioned documents;
- forensic document examination;
- batch variation;
- common source;
- error rate;
- printing defects;
- printing processes
Abstract: The examination of printing defects, or imperfections, found on printed or copied documents has been recognized as a generally accepted approach for linking questioned documents to a common source. This research paper will highlight the results from two mutually exclusive studies. The first involved the examination and characterization of printing defects found in a controlled production run of 500,000 envelopes bearing text and images. It was concluded that printing defects are random occurrences and that morphological differences can be used to identify variations within the same production batch. The second part incorporated a blind study to assess the error rate of associating randomly selected envelopes from different retail locations to a known source. The examination was based on the comparison of printing defects in the security patterns found in some envelopes. The results demonstrated that it is possible to associate envelopes to a common origin with a 0% error rate.