Predicting Phenotype from Genotype: Normal Pigmentation*

Authors

  • Robert K. Valenzuela M.S.,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724.
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    • Present Address: Center for Human Genetics, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, WI 54449.

  • Miquia S. Henderson B.S.,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724.
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  • Monica H. Walsh B.S.,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724.
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  • Nanibaa’ A. Garrison Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724.
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    • Present Address: Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305.

  • Jessica T. Kelch B.S.,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724.
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  • Orit Cohen-Barak Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724.
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    • §

      Present Address: Pharmacology Unit, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Netanya, 42504, Israel.

  • Drew T. Erickson Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724.
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    • Present Address: Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.

  • F. John Meaney Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724.
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  • J. Bruce Walsh Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721.
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  • Keith C. Cheng M.D., Ph.D.,

    1. Jake Gittlen Cancer Research Foundation, Department of Pathology; Department of Pharmacology; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033.
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  • Shosuke Ito Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.
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  • Kazumasa Wakamatsu Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.
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  • Tony Frudakis Ph.D.,

    1. DNAPrint Genomics, Inc., Sarasota, FL 34236.
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  • Matthew Thomas Ph.D.,

    1. DNAPrint Genomics, Inc., Sarasota, FL 34236.
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    • #

      Present Address: Information Security, Intelligence & Analysis, Sylint Group, Sarasota, FL 34230.

  • Murray H. Brilliant Ph.D.

    1. Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724.
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    • Present Address: Center for Human Genetics, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, WI 54449.


  • *

    Funded by the National Institute of Justice (2002-1J-CX-K010).

Additional information and reprint requests:
Murray H. Brilliant, Ph.D.
Center for Human Genetics
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation
1000 North Oak Avenue
Marshfield, WI 54449
E-mail: brilliant.murray@mcrf.mfldclin.edu

Abstract

Abstract:  Genetic information in forensic studies is largely limited to CODIS data and the ability to match samples and assign them to an individual. However, there are circumstances, in which a given DNA sample does not match anyone in the CODIS database, and no other information about the donor is available. In this study, we determined 75 SNPs in 24 genes (previously implicated in human or animal pigmentation studies) for the analysis of single- and multi-locus associations with hair, skin, and eye color in 789 individuals of various ethnic backgrounds. Using multiple linear regression modeling, five SNPs in five genes were found to account for large proportions of pigmentation variation in hair, skin, and eyes in our across-population analyses. Thus, these models may be of predictive value to determine an individual’s pigmentation type from a forensic sample, independent of ethnic origin.

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