• forensic science;
  • Sus scrofa;
  • TASER;
  • muscle contraction;
  • Rana pipiens;
  • electromuscular incapacitation;
  • electronic control devices

Abstract:  Electronic control devices (including the Advanced TASER® X26 model produced by TASER International) incapacitate individuals by causing muscle contractions. To provide information relevant to development of future potential devices, effects of monophasic square waves with different parameters were compared with those of the X26 electronic control device, using two animal models (frogs and swine). Pulse power, electrical pulse charge, pulse duration, and pulse repetition frequency affected muscle contraction. There was no difference in the charge required, between the square waveform and the X26 waveform, to cause approximately the same muscle-contraction response (in terms of the strength-duration curve). Thus, on the basis of these initial studies, the detailed shape of a waveform may not be important in terms of generating electro-muscular incapacitation. More detailed studies, however, may be required to thoroughly test all potential waveforms to be considered for future use in ECDs.