This work was supported by the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program, Marine Corps Base, Quantico, Virginia. The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this report are those of the authors and should not be construed as an official Department of Defense position, policy, or decision. This research complied with the Animal Welfare Act and adhered to the principles enunciated in the Guide for the Care and Use of the Laboratory Animals per SECNAVINST 3800.38B and AFMAN 40-401(I). The authors have not had any relationship with any manufacturers of electronic control devices, including employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Research was supported by US Navy Contract #N001408WR20088.
Muscle Contraction During Electro-muscular Incapacitation: A Comparison Between Square-wave Pulses and the TASER® X26 Electronic Control Device*
Article first published online: 15 OCT 2010
2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2010. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.
Journal of Forensic Sciences
Volume 56, Issue Supplement s1, pages S95–S100, January 2011
How to Cite
Comeaux, J. A., Jauchem, J. R., Cox, D. D., Crane, C. C. and D’Andrea, J. A. (2011), Muscle Contraction During Electro-muscular Incapacitation: A Comparison Between Square-wave Pulses and the TASER® X26 Electronic Control Device. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 56: S95–S100. doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2010.01580.x
M26, X26, and C2 are trademarks of TASER International, Inc. TASER® is a registered trademark of TASER International, Inc.
- Issue published online: 3 JAN 2011
- Article first published online: 15 OCT 2010
- Received 25 Aug. 2009; and in revised form 3 Dec. 2009; accepted 19 Dec. 2009.
- forensic science;
- Sus scrofa;
- muscle contraction;
- Rana pipiens;
- electromuscular incapacitation;
- electronic control devices
Abstract: Electronic control devices (including the Advanced TASER® X26 model produced by TASER International) incapacitate individuals by causing muscle contractions. To provide information relevant to development of future potential devices, effects of monophasic square waves with different parameters were compared with those of the X26 electronic control device, using two animal models (frogs and swine). Pulse power, electrical pulse charge, pulse duration, and pulse repetition frequency affected muscle contraction. There was no difference in the charge required, between the square waveform and the X26 waveform, to cause approximately the same muscle-contraction response (in terms of the strength-duration curve). Thus, on the basis of these initial studies, the detailed shape of a waveform may not be important in terms of generating electro-muscular incapacitation. More detailed studies, however, may be required to thoroughly test all potential waveforms to be considered for future use in ECDs.