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Muscle Contraction During Electro-muscular Incapacitation: A Comparison Between Square-wave Pulses and the TASER® X26 Electronic Control Device

Authors

  • James A. Comeaux B.S.,

    1. Advanced Information Engineering Services, A General Dynamics Company, 3276 Reliance Loop, San Antonio, TX 78235.
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  • James R. Jauchem Ph.D.,

    1. Directed Energy Bio-Effects Division, US Air Force Research Laboratory, 8262 Hawks Road, San Antonio, TX 78235-5147.
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  • D. Duane Cox,

    1. Directed Energy Bioeffects Laboratory Detachment, Research Operations Division, US Naval Health Research Center, San Antonio, TX 78235.
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  • Carrie C. Crane B. Appl. Arts Sci.,

    1. Directed Energy Bioeffects Laboratory Detachment, Research Operations Division, US Naval Health Research Center, San Antonio, TX 78235.
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  • John A. D’Andrea Ph.D.

    1. Directed Energy Bioeffects Laboratory Detachment, Research Operations Division, US Naval Health Research Center, San Antonio, TX 78235.
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  • This work was supported by the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program, Marine Corps Base, Quantico, Virginia. The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this report are those of the authors and should not be construed as an official Department of Defense position, policy, or decision. This research complied with the Animal Welfare Act and adhered to the principles enunciated in the Guide for the Care and Use of the Laboratory Animals per SECNAVINST 3800.38B and AFMAN 40-401(I). The authors have not had any relationship with any manufacturers of electronic control devices, including employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Research was supported by US Navy Contract #N001408WR20088.

  • M26, X26, and C2 are trademarks of TASER International, Inc. TASER® is a registered trademark of TASER International, Inc.

Additional information and reprint requests:
James R. Jauchem, Ph.D.
Senior Research Physiologist
Directed Energy Bio-Effects Division
Air Force Research Laboratory
8262 Hawks Road
San Antonio, TX 78235-5147
E-mail: james.jauchem@brooks.af.mil

Abstract

Abstract:  Electronic control devices (including the Advanced TASER® X26 model produced by TASER International) incapacitate individuals by causing muscle contractions. To provide information relevant to development of future potential devices, effects of monophasic square waves with different parameters were compared with those of the X26 electronic control device, using two animal models (frogs and swine). Pulse power, electrical pulse charge, pulse duration, and pulse repetition frequency affected muscle contraction. There was no difference in the charge required, between the square waveform and the X26 waveform, to cause approximately the same muscle-contraction response (in terms of the strength-duration curve). Thus, on the basis of these initial studies, the detailed shape of a waveform may not be important in terms of generating electro-muscular incapacitation. More detailed studies, however, may be required to thoroughly test all potential waveforms to be considered for future use in ECDs.

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