A Study of Sexual Dimorphism in the Femur Among North Indians


  • Presented in part at the XXXIth Annual National Conference of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine, February 7, 2010, in Bhopal, India.

Additional information and reprint requests:
Rashmi Srivastava, Ph.D.
Department of Forensic Medicine
Institute of Medical Sciences
Banaras Hindu University
Varanasi, UP 221005
E-mail: rashmi.acad@gmail.com


Abstract:  Determination of sex of unknown skeleton remains is the most important step in the identification process. Racial and regional differences in the populations create and maintain specificity in their dimorphic characteristics. Moreover, considering continued secular changes in the population structure, constant revision of osteometric standards becomes mandatory. In an effort to establish osteometric standards for the femur of contemporary North Indian populations, 122 adult femora of known sex (M: 94; F: 28) were collected in the Department of Forensic Medicine, IMS, BHU, Varanasi. Eight standard parameters were measured and analyzed by discriminant function analysis using SPSS 16. The accuracy of sex prediction ranged from 70.5% to 83.6% with single variables. In stepwise analysis, epicondylar breadth, proximal breadth, and antero-posterior diameter of the lateral condyle were found to be the most discriminating variables providing an accuracy of 90.2%. The results clearly indicate the importance of the ends of femur in the determination of sex.