Personal Identification by the Comparison of Facial Profiles: Testing the Reliability of a High-Resolution 3D–2D Comparison Model

Authors

  • Cristina Cattaneo M.D., Ph.D.,

    1. LABANOF, Laboratorio di Antropologia e Odontologia Forense, DMU—Dipartimento di Morfologia e Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Medicina Legale, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
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  • Angela Cantatore M.M.E.,

    1. LABANOF, Laboratorio di Antropologia e Odontologia Forense, DMU—Dipartimento di Morfologia e Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Medicina Legale, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    2. Sezione di Misure e Tecniche Sperimentali, Dipartimento di Meccanica, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
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  • Romina Ciaffi B.Sc.,

    1. LABANOF, Laboratorio di Antropologia e Odontologia Forense, DMU—Dipartimento di Morfologia e Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Medicina Legale, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
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  • Daniele Gibelli M.D.,

    1. LABANOF, Laboratorio di Antropologia e Odontologia Forense, DMU—Dipartimento di Morfologia e Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Medicina Legale, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
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  • Alfredo Cigada M.M.E.,

    1. Sezione di Misure e Tecniche Sperimentali, Dipartimento di Meccanica, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
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  • Danilo De Angelis D.D.S.,

    1. LABANOF, Laboratorio di Antropologia e Odontologia Forense, DMU—Dipartimento di Morfologia e Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Medicina Legale, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
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  • Remo Sala M.M.E.

    1. Sezione di Misure e Tecniche Sperimentali, Dipartimento di Meccanica, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
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Additional information and reprint requests:
Cristina Cattaneo, M.D., Ph.D.
Professor
LABANOF, Laboratorio di Antropologia e Odontologia Forense
DMU—Dipartimento di Morfologia e Scienze Biomediche
Sezione di Medicina Legale
Università degli Studi di Milano
V. Mangiagalli 37
Milan
Italy
E-mail: cristina.cattaneo@unimi.it

Abstract

Abstract:  Identification from video surveillance systems is frequently requested in forensic practice. The “3D–2D” comparison has proven to be reliable in assessing identification but still requires standardization; this study concerns the validation of the 3D–2D profile comparison. The 3D models of the faces of five individuals were compared with photographs from the same subjects as well as from another 45 individuals. The difference in area and distance between maxima (glabella, tip of nose, fore point of upper and lower lips, pogonion) and minima points (selion, subnasale, stomion, suprapogonion) were measured. The highest difference in area between the 3D model and the 2D image was between 43 and 133 mm2 in the five matches, always greater than 157 mm2 in mismatches; the mean distance between the points was greater than 1.96 mm in mismatches, <1.9 mm in five matches (p < 0.05). These results indicate that this difference in areas may point toward a manner of distinguishing “correct” from “incorrect” matches.

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