Funding provided by the Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.
TECHNICAL NOTE ANTHROPOLOGY
Heel–Ball (HB) Index: Sexual Dimorphism of a New Index from Foot Dimensions*
Article first published online: 10 NOV 2011
© 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences
Journal of Forensic Sciences
Volume 57, Issue 1, pages 172–175, January 2012
How to Cite
Krishan, K., Kanchan, T., Passi, N. and DiMaggio, J. A. (2012), Heel–Ball (HB) Index: Sexual Dimorphism of a New Index from Foot Dimensions. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 57: 172–175. doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2011.01960.x
- Issue published online: 4 JAN 2012
- Article first published online: 10 NOV 2011
- Received 9 Aug. 2010; and in revised form 17 Nov. 2010; accepted 22 Dec. 2010.
- forensic science;
- forensic anthropology;
- forensic podiatry;
- sex determination;
- foot dimensions;
- Heel–ball index
Abstract: The present research is aimed to introduce Heel–ball (HB) index from foot dimensions and determine whether this index exhibits sexual dimorphism. The study was conducted on a sample of 303 North Indian individuals (154 men, and 149 women) aged between 13 and 18 years. The stature, body weight, foot breadth at the ball (BBAL), and foot breadth at heel (BHEL) were measured. The HB index was derived by the formula BHEL × 100/BBAL. Although the mean HB index was larger in women in both feet it showed statistically significant sex differences in the right foot only. The study shows that while the foot dimensions show a positive correlation with stature and weight, the HB index is independent of the stature and weight of an individual. This novel index (HB index) may be utilized in sex determination when a part of the foot is brought for medico-legal investigation.