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Heel–Ball (HB) Index: Sexual Dimorphism of a New Index from Foot Dimensions


  • Funding provided by the Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

Additional information and reprint requests:
Dr. Kewal Krishan
Sr. Assistant Professor
Department of Anthropology
(UGC Centre for Advanced Studies and FIST Department)
Punjab University
Chandigarh-160 014


Abstract:  The present research is aimed to introduce Heel–ball (HB) index from foot dimensions and determine whether this index exhibits sexual dimorphism. The study was conducted on a sample of 303 North Indian individuals (154 men, and 149 women) aged between 13 and 18 years. The stature, body weight, foot breadth at the ball (BBAL), and foot breadth at heel (BHEL) were measured. The HB index was derived by the formula BHEL × 100/BBAL. Although the mean HB index was larger in women in both feet it showed statistically significant sex differences in the right foot only. The study shows that while the foot dimensions show a positive correlation with stature and weight, the HB index is independent of the stature and weight of an individual. This novel index (HB index) may be utilized in sex determination when a part of the foot is brought for medico-legal investigation.