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Development and Validation of a Simple GC–MS Method for the Simultaneous Determination of 11 Anticholinesterase Pesticides in Blood—Clinical and Forensic Toxicology Applications

Authors

  • Ioannis Papoutsis Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 11527, Greece.
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  • Marcela Mendonis Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 11527, Greece.
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  • Panagiota Nikolaou Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 11527, Greece.
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  • Sotirios Athanaselis Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 11527, Greece.
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  • Constantinos Pistos Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 11527, Greece.
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  • Constantinos Maravelias Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 11527, Greece.
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  • Chara Spiliopoulou Ph.D.

    1. Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 11527, Greece.
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Additional information and reprint requests:
Panagiota Nikolaou, Ph.D.
Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology
School of Medicine
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Mikras Asias 75
Athens 11527
Greece
E-mail: pan_nik@hotmail.com

Abstract

Abstract:  Anticholinesterase pesticides are widely used, and as a result they are involved in numerous acute and even fatal poisonings. The aim of this study was the development, optimization, and validation of a simple, rapid, specific, and sensitive gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for the determination of 11 anticholinesterase pesticides (aldicarb, azinphos methyl, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dialifos, diazinon, malathion, methamidophos, methidathion, methomyl, and terbufos) in blood. Only 500 μL of blood was used, and the recoveries after liquid–liquid extraction (toluene/chloroform, 4:1, v/v) were more than 65.6%. The calibration curves were linear (R2 ≥ 0.996). Limit of detections and limit of quantifications were found to be between 1.00–10.0 and 3.00–30.0 μg/L, respectively. Accuracy expressed as the %Er was found to be between −11.0 and 7.8%. Precision expressed as the percent relative standard deviation was found to be <9.4%. The developed method can be applied for the investigation of both forensic and clinical cases of accidental or suicidal poisoning with these pesticides.

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