Identification of Synthetic Cannabinoids in Herbal Incense Blends in the United States
Article first published online: 26 JUL 2012
© 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences
Journal of Forensic Sciences
Volume 57, Issue 5, pages 1168–1180, September 2012
How to Cite
Logan, B. K., Reinhold, L. E., Xu, A. and Diamond, F. X. (2012), Identification of Synthetic Cannabinoids in Herbal Incense Blends in the United States. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 57: 1168–1180. doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2012.02207.x
- Issue published online: 5 SEP 2012
- Article first published online: 26 JUL 2012
- Received 11 Dec. 2010; and in revised form 28 May 2011; accepted 8 April 2012.
- forensic science;
- synthetic cannabinoids;
- liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry;
- drug identification;
Abstract: Synthetic cannabinoid agonists are chemically diverse with multiple analogs gaining popularity as drugs of abuse. We report on the use of thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry for the identification and quantitation of these pharmacologically active chemicals in street drug dosage forms. Using these approaches, we have identified the synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018, JWH-019, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-200, JWH-210, JWH-250, CP47,497 (C=8) (cannabicyclohexanol), RCS-4, RCS-8, AM-2201, and AM-694 in various commercially available products. Other noncannabinoid drugs including mitragynine have also been detected. Typical concentrations of drug in the materials are in the range 5–20 mg/g, or 0.5–2% by weight for each compound, although many products contained more than one drug.