• Breeder's equation;
  • G matrix;
  • microarrays;
  • quantitative genetics;
  • QTL analysis

Quantitative genetics is at or is fast approaching its centennial. In this perspective I consider five current issues pertinent to the application of quantitative genetics to evolutionary theory. First, I discuss the utility of a quantitative genetic perspective in describing genetic variation at two very different levels of resolution, (1) in natural, free-ranging populations and (2) to describe variation at the level of DNA transcription. Whereas quantitative genetics can serve as a very useful descriptor of genetic variation, its greater usefulness is in predicting evolutionary change, particularly when used in the first instance (wild populations). Second, I review the contributions of Quantitative trait loci (QLT) analysis in determining the number of loci and distribution of their genetic effects, the possible importance of identifying specific genes, and the ability of the multivariate breeder's equation to predict the results of bivariate selection experiments. QLT analyses appear to indicate that genetic effects are skewed, that at least 20 loci are generally involved, with an unknown number of alleles, and that a few loci have major effects. However, epistatic effects are common, which means that such loci might not have population-wide major effects: this question waits upon (QTL) analyses conducted on more than a few inbred lines. Third, I examine the importance of research into the action of specific genes on traits. Although great progress has been made in identifying specific genes contributing to trait variation, the high level of gene interactions underlying quantitative traits makes it unlikely that in the near future we will have mechanistic models for such traits, or that these would have greater predictive power than quantitative genetic models. In the fourth section I present evidence that the results of bivariate selection experiments when selection is antagonistic to the genetic covariance are frequently not well predicted by the multivariate breeder's equation. Bivariate experiments that combine both selection and functional analyses are urgently needed. Finally, I discuss the importance of gaining more insight, both theoretical and empirical, on the evolution of the G and P matrices.