THE BALDWIN EFFECT AND GENETIC ASSIMILATION: REVISITING TWO MECHANISMS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE MEDIATED BY PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY
Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2007
Volume 61, Issue 11, pages 2469–2479, November 2007
How to Cite
Crispo, E. (2007), THE BALDWIN EFFECT AND GENETIC ASSIMILATION: REVISITING TWO MECHANISMS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE MEDIATED BY PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY. Evolution, 61: 2469–2479. doi: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00203.x
- Issue online: 21 AUG 2007
- Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2007
- Received May 14, 2007Accepted June 19, 2007
- 2004. Incipient speciation driven by phenotypic plasticity? Evidence from sympatric populations of Arctic charr. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 81:611–618. , and .
- 2004. Adaptive developmental plasticity in snakes. Nature 431:261–262. , , and .
- 2005. Stress-induced variation in evolution: from behavioural plasticity to genetic assimilation. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 272:877–886.
- 1896. A new factor in evolution. Am. Nat. 30:441–451,536–553.
- 1902. Development and evolution. MacMillan Co., Lond . .
- 2006. A role for genetic accommodation in evolution? Bioessays 28:868–873. , and .
- 2007. Testing the persistence of phenotypic plasticity after incubation in the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis. Evol. Ecol. Res. 9:169–183. , , , , and .
- 2000. Phenotypic plasticity and the possible role of genetic assimilation: hypoxia-induced trade-offs in the morphological traits of an African cichlid. Ecol. Lett. 3:387–393. , , and .
- 1995. Phenotypic similarity and the evolutionary significance of countergradient variation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 10:248–252. , and .
- 2006. Genotype × environment interaction for make attractiveness in an acoustic moth: evidence for plasticity and canalization. J. Evol. Biol. 19:532–542. , , and .
- 1994. A comparison of two sticklebacks. Evolution 48:1723–1734. , , and .
- 2005. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity: patterns of plasticity and the emergence of ecotypes. New. Phytol. 166:101–118. .
- 1998. Costs and limits of phenotypic plasticity: tests with predator-induced morphology and life history in a freshwater snail. J. Evol. Biol. 11:465–480.
- 1998. Costs and limits of phenotypic plasticity. Trends Ecol. Evol. 13:77–81. , , and .
- 2005. The evolutionary genetics of canalization. Q. Rev. Biol. 80:287–316.
- 1947. Problems of evolution. Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci. 37:17–68.
- 2007. Adaptive versus non-adaptive phenotypic plasticity and the potential for contemporary adaptation in new environments. Funct. Ecol. 21:394–407. , , , and .
- 2004. Uncovering cryptic genetic variation. Nature Genet. 5:681–690. , and .
- 1996. Effect of polymorphism in the Drosophila regulatory gene Ultrabithorax on homeotic stability. Science 271:200–203. , and .
- 2005. Environmental heterogeneity and population differentiation in plasticity to drought in Convolvulus chilensis (Convolvulaceae). Evol. Ecol. 19:603–613. , and .
- 2006. Developmental plasticity mirrors differences among taxa in spadefoot toads linking plasticity and diversity. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 104:19021–19026. , and .
- 2005. Environmental change, phenotypic plasticity, and genetic compensation. Am. Nat. 166:E115–E123.
- 2007. Mapping phenotypic plasticity and genotype-environment interactions affecting life-history traits in Caenorhabditis elegans. Heredity 98:28–37. , , , and .
- 2001. Organic selection: proximate environmental effects on the evolution of morphology and behaviour. Biol. Philos. 16:215–237.
- 2004. Do highly trained monkeys walk like humans? A kinematic study of bipedal locomotion in bipedally trained Japanese macaques. J. Hum. Evol. 46:739–750. , , , , and .
- 1896. On modification and variation. Science 4:733–740.
- 2005. Selection on heritable phenotypic plasticity in a wild bird population. Science 310:304–306. , , , and .
- 1896. A mode of evolution requiring neither natural selection nor the inheritance of acquired characters. Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 15:141–142,148.
- 2006. Replicated evolution of integrated plastic responses during early adaptive divergence. Evolution 60:801–813. , and .
- 2003. Genetic assimilation and a possible evolutionary paradox: can macroevolution sometimes be so fast as to pass us by? Evolution 57:1455–1464. , and .
- 2006. Phenotypic plasticity and evolution by genetic assimilation. J. Exp. Biol. 209:2362–2367. , , and .
- 2003. The role of phenotypic plasticity in driving genetic evolution. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 270:1433–1440. , , and .
- 2002. Hsp90 as a capacitor of phenotypic variation. Nature 417:618–624. , , and .
- 2002. Costs of phenotypic plasticity. Am. Nat. 159:272–282.
- 2006. A comparative analysis of the adaptive developmental plasticity hypothesis in six Mediterranean anuran species along a pond permanency gradient. Evol. Ecol. Res. 8:1139–1154. , , and .
- 1999. The influence of phenotypic modifications on evolution: the Baldwin effect and modern perspectives. Oikos 85:582–589. , and .
- 1994. Phenotypes. Their epigenetics, ecology and evolution. Chapman & Hall, Lond .
- 1998. Hsp90 as a capacitor for morphological evolution. Nature 396:336–342. , and .
- 2004. From the Reaktionsnorm to the evolution of adaptive plasticity: a historical sketch, 1909–1999. Pp. 10–30 in T. J.DeWitt and S. M.Scheiner, eds. Phenotypic plasticity. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford , U.K.
- 1993. Genetics and evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 24:35–68.
- 1989. The genetics of phenotypic plasticity I. Heritability. J. Evol. Biol. 2:95–107. , and .
- 2004. The role of phenotypic plasticity in diversification. Pp. 191–200 in T. J.DeWitt and S. M.Scheiner, eds. Phenotypic plasticity. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford , U.K.
- 1993. Control of phenotypic plasticity via regulatory genes. Am. Nat. 142:366–370. , and .
- 1998. Phenotypic evolution: a reaction norm perspective. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland , MA . , and .
- 1949. Factors of evolution. Blakiston. Philadelphia , PA .
- 1953. The Baldwin effect. Evolution 7:110–117.
- 1942a. Biologic-anatomical investigations on the bipedal gait and upright posture in mammals, with special reference to a little goat, born without forelegs. I. Proc. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie Wetenschappen 45:288–295.
- 1942b. Biologic-anatomical investigations on the bipedal gait and upright posture in mammals, with special reference to a little goat, born without forelegs. II. Proc. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie Wetenschappen 45:407–415. .
- 2003. Evidence for an epigenetic mechanism by which Hsp90 acts as a capacitor for morphological evolution. Nature Genet. 33:70–74. , , , , , and .
- 2003. Evolution in stressful environments II: adaptive value and costs of plasticity in response to low light in Sinapis arvensis. J. Evol. Biol. 16:313–323. , , and .
- 2002. Metapopulation structure favors plasticity over local adaptation. Am. Nat. 160:271–283. , and .
- 2006. Evolution of a polyphenism by genetic accommodation. Science 311:650–652. , and .
- 2005. Habitat specialization and adaptive phenotypic divergence of anuran populations. J. Evol. Biol. 18:596–608. , and .
- 1993a. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity: target or by-product of selection in a variable environment? Am. Nat. 142:352–365.
- 1993b. Regulatory genes and reaction norms. Am. Nat. 142:374–378. .
- 1985. Genotype-environment interaction and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Evolution 39:505–522. , and .
- 1942. Canalization of development and the inheritance of acquired characters. Nature 150:563–565.
- 1952a. Selection of the genetic basis for an acquired character. Nature 169:278. .
- 1952b. Selection of the genetic basis for an acquired character: reply to Begg. Nature 169:625–626. .
- 1953a. The “Baldwin effect,”“genetic assimilation” and “homeostasis”. Evolution 7:386–387. .
- 1953b. Epigenetics and evolution. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 7:186–199. .
- 1953c. The evolution of adaptations. Endeavour 12:134–139. .
- 1953d. Genetic assimilation of an acquired character. Evolution 7:118–126. .
- 1956. Genetic assimilation of the bithorix phenotype. Evolution 10:1–13. .
- 1957. The strategy of the genes. George Allen & Unwin Ltd., Lond . .
- 1959. Canalization of development and genetic assimilation of acquired characters. Nature 183:1654–1655. .
- 1961. Genetic assimilation. Adv. Genet. 10:257–290. .
- 1989. Phenotypic plasticity and the origins of diversity. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 20:249–278.
- 2003. Developmental plasticity and evolution. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford , U.K. .
- 2005. Phenotypic accommodation: adaptive innovation due to developmental plasticity. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 304B:610–618. .
- 2004. Genetics and mechanics of plasticity. Pp. 31–49 in T. J.DeWitt and S. M.Scheiner, eds. Phenotypic plasticity. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford , U.K. , , and .
- 1909. Weitere experimentelle untersüchungen über artveränderung, speziell über das wesen quantitativer artunterschiede bei daphniden. Verhandlungen de Deutschen Zooligischen Gesellschaft 19:110–172.
- 2006. Hsp90 at the crossroads of genetics and epigenetics. Cell Res. 16:742–749. , and .
- 2004. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity and the successful colonization of a novel environment. Am. Nat. 164:531–542. , and .
- 2005. Navigating the chaperone network: an integrative map of physical and genetic interactions mediated by the Hsp90 chaperone. Cell 120:715–727. , , , , , , , , , , , , and .