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Figure S1. Histograms of the first principal component of 10 limber pine cone and seed traits (PC1, as in main text Fig. 1) indicate that more variation and bimodality of cone structure is present within populations in the regions with pine squirrels (Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada; gray bars) but not in the region without them (Great Basin, all sites in Nevada, and the White Mountains, CA; white bars).

Table S1. Principal component loadings of the 10 limber pine cone and seed traits describing cone and seed structure and the amount of variation explained by the first principal component for the populations used in the selection analyses.

Table S2. Principal component loadings of the 10 limber pine cone and seed traits describing cone and seed structure and the amount of variation explained by the first principal component from the 18 populations (11 with pine squirrels, and seven without them) used to infer geographic variation in cone structure (n = 639 trees).

Table S3. Results of the general linear model used to make comparisons of variation in cone structure between regions with and without pine squirrels (Full model: F4, 13 = 6.52, P = 0.0042).

Table S4. Study sites, whether pine squirrels are present or absent, ΔAIC from comparing models of PC1 assuming that the distributions of PC1 are composed of unimodal versus bimodal normal distributions, and the qualitative categorization of bimodality.

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