Figure S1. Illustration of the riverbank--forest floor transition and habitat use in Ainsliaea faurieana and A. apiculata.

Figure S2. Map of Yakushima Island and the six sympatric sites used in this study. Mixed populations of three phenotypes (AF: Ainsliaea faurieana type; HB: hybrid type; AA: A. apiculata type) are shown as circles and mixed populations of two phenotypes (AF and AA) are shown as squares.

Figure S3. The mean mass-based leaf net photosynthetic rate (A) at each photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) in Ainsliaea faurieana, A. apiculata, and their potential hybrids. Different superscripts indicate significantly different means (P < 0.05, post hoc Tukey HSD multiple comparison).

Table S1. Primers of nine nuclear microsatellite loci used.

Table S2. Experiments on the effect of end-of-day exposure to red or far-red light on seed germination.

Table S3. Allelic frequencies at nine microsatellite loci for phenotypes AF (Ainsliaea faurieana type), AA (A. apiculata type), and HB (hybrid type) pooled over all sites.

Table S4. Genetic diversity parameters and their standard deviations (in parentheses) estimated at nine microsatellite loci for each phenotype and site. HO: observed heterozygosity; HS: gene diversity; FIS: fixation index; HWE: deviation from Hardy--Weinberg equilibrium.

Table S5. Comparison of leaf structures for Ainsliaea faurieana, A. apiculata, and their potential hybrids.

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