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A CASE-BY-CASE EVOLUTIONARY ANALYSIS OF FOUR IMPRINTED RETROGENES
Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2011
© 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Volume 65, Issue 5, pages 1413–1427, May 2011
How to Cite
McCole, R. B., Loughran, N. B., Chahal, M., Fernandes, L. P., Roberts, R. G., Fraternali, F., O’Connell, M. J. and Oakey, R. J. (2011), A CASE-BY-CASE EVOLUTIONARY ANALYSIS OF FOUR IMPRINTED RETROGENES. Evolution, 65: 1413–1427. doi: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.01213.x
- Issue online: 26 APR 2011
- Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 20 DEC 2010 05:00AM EST
- Received March 24, 2010, Accepted November 30, 2010
- gene expression;
- molecular evolution;
Retroposition is a widespread phenomenon resulting in the generation of new genes that are initially related to a parent gene via very high coding sequence similarity. We examine the evolutionary fate of four retrogenes generated by such an event; mouse Inpp5f_v2, Mcts2, Nap1l5, and U2af1-rs1. These genes are all subject to the epigenetic phenomenon of parental imprinting. We first provide new data on the age of these retrogene insertions. Using codon-based models of sequence evolution, we show these retrogenes have diverse evolutionary trajectories, including divergence from the parent coding sequence under positive selection pressure, purifying selection pressure maintaining parent-retrogene similarity, and neutral evolution. Examination of the expression pattern of retrogenes shows an atypical, broad pattern across multiple tissues. Protein 3D structure modeling reveals that a positively selected residue in U2af1-rs1, not shared by its parent, may influence protein conformation. Our case-by-case analysis of the evolution of four imprinted retrogenes reveals that this interesting class of imprinted genes, while similar in regulation and sequence characteristics, follow very varied evolutionary paths.