PATTERNS OF MATING-SYSTEM EVOLUTION IN HERMAPHRODITIC ANIMALS: CORRELATIONS AMONG SELFING RATE, INBREEDING DEPRESSION, AND THE TIMING OF REPRODUCTION

Authors

  • Juan S. Escobar,

    1. Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive UMR 5175, 1919 Route de Mende, Campus CNRS, 34293 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    2.  E-mail: jsescobar2002@yahoo.fr
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    • Present address: Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution UMR 5554, Université Montpellier II, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

  • Josh R. Auld,

    1. University of Pittsburgh, Department of Biological Sciences, 101 Clapp Hall, 4249 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260
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    • Present address: National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent), 2024 W. Main St., Suite A200, Durham, NCS 27705.

  • Ana C. Correa,

    1. Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, GEMI UMR 2724 CNRS-IRD, 911 Avenue Agropolis, 34394 Montpellier, France
    2. Programa de Estudio y Control de Enfermedades Tropicales, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 62 N° 52–59, Sede de Investigación Universitaria, Medellin, Colombia
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  • Juan M. Alonso,

    1. USR 3278 CNRS-EPHE CRIOBE, Université de Perpignan, 68860 Perpignan cedex, France
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  • Yves K. Bony,

    1. USR 3278 CNRS-EPHE CRIOBE, Université de Perpignan, 68860 Perpignan cedex, France
    2. Department of Biological Sciences, Laboratoire d’Environnement et de Biologie Aquatique (LEBA), URES de Daloa (University of Abobo-Adjamé), 28 BP 465, Abidjan 28, Ivory Coast
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  • Marie-Agnès Coutellec,

    1. Institut National de Recherche Agronomique, UMR0985 Ecologie et Santé des Ecosystèmes, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc, CS 84215, F-35042 Rennes Cedex, France
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  • Joris M. Koene,

    1. Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Jean-Pierre Pointier,

    1. USR 3278 CNRS-EPHE CRIOBE, Université de Perpignan, 68860 Perpignan cedex, France
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  • Philippe Jarne,

    1. Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive UMR 5175, 1919 Route de Mende, Campus CNRS, 34293 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
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  • Patrice David

    1. Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive UMR 5175, 1919 Route de Mende, Campus CNRS, 34293 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
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Abstract

In hermaphrodites, traits that influence the selfing rate can coevolve with inbreeding depression, leading to the emergence of evolutionary syndromes. Theory predicts a negative correlation between inbreeding depression and selfing rate across species. This prediction has only been examined and validated in vascular plants. Furthermore, selfing rates are often influenced by environmental conditions (e.g., lack of mates or pollinators), and species are predicted to evolve mechanisms to buffer this variation. We extend previous studies of mating-system syndromes in two ways. First, we assembled a new dataset on Basommatophoran snails (17 species, including new data on 12 species). Second, we measured how species responded to variation in mate availability. Specifically, we quantified the waiting time before selfing (i.e., how long the onset of reproduction is delayed in the absence of mates). Selfing rates were negatively correlated with both inbreeding depression and the waiting time. Species with stronger inbreeding depression exhibited longer waiting times. These patterns obtained on Basommatophorans still hold when including eight other hermaphroditic animals. Our results support the hypothesis that selection drives the evolution of mating-system syndromes in animals. The reaction norm of selfing rates to mate availability is a key target of natural selection in this context.

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