• Adaptive radiation;
  • Fossils;
  • Herbivory;
  • Life-History Evolution;
  • Morphological Evolution

In a recent paper, Eronen et al. (2010; hereafter EEFJ) observe differences in occlusal morphology, tooth crown height, and mesowear pattern between populations of the Miocene tridactyl equid Anchitherium from Spain and Germany, proposing that Spanish Anchitherium underwent adaptive evolution to local or regional arid conditions. However, these authors do not take into account the actual diversity of Iberian representatives of Anchitherium, or the fact that the Spanish fossils cover a wider temporal and geographical range than those from Germany. For these reasons, we suggest that their subsequent statistical work should be reconsidered.