FITNESS CONSEQUENCES OF LARVAL TRAITS PERSIST ACROSS THE METAMORPHIC BOUNDARY
Article first published online: 27 JUN 2011
© 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Volume 65, Issue 11, pages 3079–3089, November 2011
How to Cite
Crean, A. J., Monro, K. and Marshall, D. J. (2011), FITNESS CONSEQUENCES OF LARVAL TRAITS PERSIST ACROSS THE METAMORPHIC BOUNDARY. Evolution, 65: 3079–3089. doi: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01372.x
- Issue published online: 24 OCT 2011
- Article first published online: 27 JUN 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 3 JUN 2011 02:03AM EST
- Received November 04, 2010, Accepted May 17, 2011, Data Archived: Dryad doi:10.5061/dryad.574r7
- Adaptive decoupling;
- complex life cycles;
- fitness surface;
- nonlinear selection;
- phenotypic selection
Metamorphosis is thought to provide an adaptive decoupling between traits specialized for each life-history stage in species with complex life cycles. However, an increasing number of studies are finding that larval traits can carry-over to influence postmetamorphic performance, suggesting that these life-history stages may not be free to evolve independently of each other. We used a phenotypic selection framework to compare the relative and interactive effects of larval size, time to hatching, and time to settlement on postmetamorphic survival and growth in a marine invertebrate, Styela plicata. Time to hatching was the only larval trait found to be under directional selection, individuals that took more time to hatch into larvae survived better after metamorphosis but grew more slowly. Nonlinear selection was found to act on multivariate trait combinations, once again acting in opposite directions for selection acting via survival and growth. Individuals with above average values of larval traits were most likely to survive, but surviving individuals with intermediate larval traits grew to the largest size. These results demonstrate that larval traits can have multiple, complex fitness consequences that persist across the metamorphic boundary; and thus postmetamorphic selection pressures may constrain the evolution of larval traits.