SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

LITERATURE CITED

  • Abrams, P. A., and D. Ludwig. 1995. Optimality theory, Gompertz’ law, and the disposable soma theory of senescence. Evolution 49:10551066.
  • Barbi, E., and J. W. Vaupel. 2005. Comment on “Inflammatory exposure and historical changes in human life-spans. Science 308:1743.
  • Barbi, E., G. Caselli, and J. Vallin. 2003. Trajectories of extreme survival in heterogeneous populations. Population 58:4366.
  • Bengtsson, T., and M. Lindstrom. 2000. Childhood misery and disease in later life: the effects on mortality in old age of hazards experienced in early life, southern Sweden, 1760–1894. Popul. Stud. (Camb.) 54:263277.
  • Bengtsson, T., and M. Lindstrom. 2003. Airborne infectious diseases during infancy and mortality in later life in southern Sweden, 1766–1894. Int. J. Epidemiol. 32:286294.
  • Carnes, B. A., S. J. Olshansky, and D. Grahn1996. Continuing the search for a law of mortality. Popul. Dev. Rev. 22:231264.
  • Christensen, K., M. McGue, I. Petersen, B. Jeune, and J. W. Vaupel2008. Exceptional longevity does not result in excessive levels of disability. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:1327413279.
  • Finch, C. E., M. C. Pike, and M. Witten 1990. Slow mortality rate accelerations during aging in some animals approximate that of humans. Science 249:902905.
  • Finch, C. E. 1990. Longevity, senescence, and the genome. Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago .
  • Finch, C. E., and E. M. Crimmins 2004. Inflammatory exposure and historical changes in human life-spans. Science 305:17361739.
  • Fridlizius, G. 1989. The deformation of cohorts: nineteenth century mortality decline in a generational perspective. Scandinavian Economic History Review 37:317.
  • Gavrilov, L. A., and N. S. Gavrilova 1991. The biology of life span: a quantitative approach. Harwood Academic Publishers, New York .
  • Gavrilov, L. A., and N. S. Gavrilova. 2001. The reliability theory of aging and longevity. J. Theor. Biol. 213:527545.
  • Golubev, A. 2009. How could the Gompertz-Makeham law evolve. J. Theor. Biol. 258:117.
  • Gompertz, B. 1825. On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality and on a new mode of determining life contingencies. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 115:513585.
  • Gurven, M., and H. Kaplan 2007. Longevity among hunter-gatherers: a cross-cultural examination. Popul. Dev. Rev. 33:321365.
  • Gurven, M., and A. Fenelon 2009. Has actuarial aging “slowed” over the past 250 years? A comparison of small-scale subsistence populations and European cohorts. Evolution 63:10171035.
  • Hamilton, W. D. 1966. The moulding of senescence by natural selection. J. Theor. Biol. 12:1245.
  • Hawkes, K. 2003. Grandmothers and the evolution of human longevity. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 15:380400.
  • Hawkes, K.. 2010. How grandmother effects plus individual variation in frailty shape fertility and mortality: guidance from human-chimpanzee comparisons. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107:89778984.
  • Hawkes, K., and N. J. Blurton Jones 2005. Human age structures, paleodemography, and the Grandmother Hypothesis. Pp. 118140 in A. C. E. Voland, A. Chasiotis, and W. Schiefenhövel eds. Grandmotherhood: the evolutionary significance of the second half of female life. Rutgers Univ. Press, New Brunswick .
  • Hawkes, K., and K. R. Smith 2010. Do women stop early? Similarities in fertility decline between humans and chimpanzees. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1204:4353.
  • Hawkes, K., K. R. Smith, and S. L. Robson 2009. Mortality and fertility rates in humans and chimpanzees: how within-species variation complicates cross-species comparisons. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 21:578586.
  • Howell, N. 1979. Demography of the Dobe !Kung. Academic Press, New York .
  • Kermack, W. O., A. G. McKendrick, and P. L. McKinlay 1934. Death-rates in Great Britain and Sweden. Some general regularities and their significance. Lancet 31:698703.
  • Kirkwood, T. B. 2008. A systematic look at an old problem. Nature 451:644647.
  • Kleinbaum, D. G., and M. Klein 2005. Survival analysis: a self-learning text. 2nd ed. Springer, New York .
  • Kulminski, A. M., S. V. Ukraintseva, I. V. Kulminskaya, K. G. Arbeev, K. Land, and A. I. Yashin 2008. Cumulative deficits better characterize susceptibility to death in elderly people than phenotypic frailty: lessons from the Cardiovascular Health Study. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 56:898903.
  • Makeham, W. H. 1867. On the law of mortality. J. Inst. Actuaries 13:325358.
  • Manton, K. G. 2008. Recent declines in chronic disability in the elderly U.S. population: risk factors and future dynamics. Annu. Rev. Public Health 29:91113.
  • Mitnitski, A., X. Song, I. Skoog, G. A. Broe, J. L. Cox, E. Grunfeld, and K. Rockwood 2005. Relative fitness and frailty of elderly men and women in developed countries and their relationship with mortality. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 53:21842189.
  • Mueller, L. D., and M. R. Rose 1996. Evolutionary theory predicts late-life mortality plateaus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:1524915253.
  • Murphy, M. 2010. Reexamining the dominance of birth cohort effects on mortality. Pop. Dev. Rev. 36:365390.
  • Nam, C. B. 1996. Another look at mortality crossovers. Soc. Biol. 42:133142.
  • Olshansky, S. J. 1998. Review: on the biodemography of aging: a review essay. Popul. Dev. Rev. 24:381393.
  • Olshansky, S. J., and B. A. Carnes 1997. Ever since Gompertz. Demography 34:115.
  • Pearl, R. 1922. The biology of death. JB Lippincott, Philadelphia .
  • Pletcher, S. D., and C. Neuhauser 2000. Biological aging—criteria for modeling and a new mechanistic model. Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 11:525546.
  • Ricklefs, R. E. 1998. Evolutionary theories of aging: confirmation of a fundamental prediction, with implications for the genetic basis and evolution of life span. Am. Nat. 152:2444.
  • Ricklefs, R. E.. 2000. Intrinsic aging in birds and mammals. J. Avian Biol. 31:103111.
  • Ricklefs, R. E., and A. Scheuerlein 2002. Biological implications of the Weibull and Gompertz models of aging. J. Gerontol. 57:B6976.
  • Ricklefs, R. E., and A. Scheuerlein 2003. Life span in the light of avian life histories. Popul. Dev. Rev. 29:7198.
  • Riggs, J. E., and G. R. Hobbs 1998. Nonrandom sequence of slope-intercept estimates in longitudinal Gompertzian analysis suggests biological relevance. Mech. Ageing Dev. 100:269275.
  • Robinson, W. S. 1950. Ecological correlations and the behavior of individuals. Am. Sociol. Rev. 15:351357.
  • Sacher, G. A. 1977. Life table modification and life prolongation. Pp. 582638 in C. E. Finch, and L. Hayflick eds. Handbook of the biology of aging. Van Nostrand, New York .
  • Strehler, B. L. 2000. Understanding aging. Pp. 119 in Y. A. Barnett and C. R. Barnett eds, Aging methods and protocols. Humana Press Inc, Totowa , NJ.
  • Strehler, B. L., and A. S. Mildvan 1960. General theory of mortality and aging. Science 132:1421.
  • Vaupel, J. W., and A. I. Yashin 1985. Heterogeneity's ruses: some surprising effects of selection on population dynamics. Am. Stat. 39:176185.
  • Vaupel, J. W., J. R. Carey, K. Christensen, T. E. Johnson, A. I. Yashin, N. V. Holm, I. A. Iachine, V. Kannisto, A. A. Khazaeli, P. Liedo, et al. 1998. Biodemographic trajectories of longevity. Science 280:855860.
  • Williams, G. C. 1957. Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence. Evolution 47:877887.
  • Wilmoth, J. R., and S. Horiuchi 1999. Do the oldest old grow old more slowly? Pp. 2560 in B. Forette, C. Franceschi, J. M. Robine, and M. Allard eds. The paradoxes of longevity. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg .
  • Wood, J. W., S. C. Weeks, G. R. Bentley, and K. M. Weiss 1994. The population biology of human aging. Pp. 1975 in D. Crews, and R. Garruto eds. Biological anthropology and aging: perspectives on human variation over the life span. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford , U.K .
  • Yashin, A. I., A. S. Begun, S. I. Boiko, S. V. Ukraintseva, and J. Oeppen 2001. The new trends in survival improvement require a revision of traditional gerontological concepts. Exp. Gerontol. 37:157167.
  • Yashin, A. I., A. S. Begun, S. I. Boiko, S. V. Ukraintseva, and J. Oeppen. 2002a. New age patterns of survival improvement in Sweden: do they characterize changes in individual aging? Mech. Ageing Dev. 123:637647.
  • Yashin, A. I., S. V. Ukraintseva, S. I. Boiko, and K. G. Arbeev 2002b. Individual aging and mortality rate: how are they related? Soc. Biol. 49:206217.
  • Zheng, H, Y. Yang, and K.C. Land 2011. Heterogeneity in the Strehler-Mildvan general theory of mortality and aging. Demography 48:267290.