Figure S1. Phylogeny used to perform the phylogenetic least-squared regressions (PGLS). For details see the methods section of the original paper.

Figure S2. Buffering (difference between environmental seasonality and experienced seasonality) is only weakly positively correlated to relative brain size in Malagasy lemurs (PGLS: P = 0.14, λ = 1.00). Therefore, there is only weak evidence for the Cognitive Buffer hypothesis in this group [63].

Table S1. List of species and their specific data used in this study.

Table S2. Multivariate phylogenetic least-square regressions (PGLS) between seasonality and brain size, controlling for body mass using a reduced dataset of average brain sizes from individual specimens collected within a 100 km radius of the study location from which dietary data were taken for that species (N = 26).

Table S3. Phylogenetic least-squared regressions (PGLS) with brain size as the response variable, one of the three seasonality variables (experienced seasonality, buffer 1, and buffer 2) as effect variable, and including each possibly confounding covariate separately.

Table S4. Relationship between environmental seasonality and brain size, using all the species for which brain sizes and environmental data were available (N = 70).

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