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Appendix S1. Recursion equations for Pi,j.

Appendix S2. Derivation of eqs. (1-7).

Appendix S3. Derivation of eqs. (8-9).

Appendix S4. Learning before dispersal.

Appendix S5. Random-graph model.

Appendix S6. Stepping-stone models.

Table S1. The values of J*IWC, NJ*IWC, and ψ for various N.

Figure S1. The effect of the cost of individual learning c on the frequency of social learners p in the random-graph model.

Figure S2. The effect of migration rate on the average frequency of social learners in the stepping-stone model.

Figure S3. The effect of migration rate on the average frequency of social learners in the stepping-stone model with a modified transmission mode.

Figure S4. A snapshot of the stepping-stone model with a modified transmission mode taken a few generations after an environmental change and a schematic representation of a wall-like structure composed of type-C individuals.

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EVO_1541_sm_figS1.pdf105KSupporting info item
EVO_1541_sm_figS2.pdf92KSupporting info item
EVO_1541_sm_figS3.pdf86KSupporting info item
EVO_1541_sm_figS4.pdf84KSupporting info item
EVO_1541_sm_tableS1.pdf59KSupporting info item
EVO_1541_sm_appendix.pdf98KSupporting info item

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